a. Synonyms b. Antonyms c. Paronyms d. Homonyms e. Homophones f. Acronyms
a. Synonyms: The words which bear the nearest meaning or similar meaning of any word are known as the synonyms of the word.
Example: Battle – fight, war etc.
Battle (between large organized armies): Three important battles were fought at Panipath.
Fight (between persons or parties but without the aid of armies): The Muslims and the Hindus often fight for some reasons.
War (between nations with the aid of large armies): A third world war will destroy everything.
Crime, vice and sin
Crime (offence against law or state): Theft is a crime.
Vice (offence against moral law): Drinking is a vice.
Sin (offence against religion): Telling lies is a great sin.
Drown and sink
Drown (for living object): The body was drowned in the river.
Sink (for both living and lifeless object): The ship sank into the ocean.
Vacant and empty
Vacant (not filled or occupied): The house is vacant.
Empty (not containing anything): The pitcher is empty.
b. Antonyms: The words which bear the opposite meaning of any word are known as antonyms of the word.
Example: possible – impossible, decent – indecent
c. Paronyms: In English, there are some words that are begotten from the same word but their meanings are different in the uses. These types of words are called paronyms.
Example: Artistic (beautiful): The poem is artistic.
Artful (clever): He succeeded by artful means.
Artificial (not natural): Modern life is getting artificial.
Childish (is used in bad sense; means ‘silly’): You are now fairly grown up but your habits are childish.
Childlike (is used in positive sense; means ‘simple’ and ‘innocent’): Her childlike simplicity pleased everybody.
d. Homonyms: In English language, there are many words whose spellings are the same but they create different meanings according to the uses/patterns of the words and the sentences and these types of words are known as homonyms.
He works in this bar (royal court).
I have crossed the bar (barrier).
The window bars (clincher/bolt) were broken.
The criminals were put behind the bar (jail).
We will go to International Trade Fair (innumerable)
He writes a fair (nice) hand.
She looks fair (lovely).
It is not a fair (rightful) business.
He divided the food fairly (equally).
e. Homophones: In English language, there are many words whose spellings and meanings are totally different from one another but they create the same pronunciation. These types of words are called homophones.
Example: Accept (take): He was accepted with thanks and some humble presents from me.
Except (excluding): None could complete except Jahid.
Check: I have checked all the accounts.
Cheque: He was paid by cheque.
f. Acronyms: Some initial letter abbreviations are pronounced like the words. These are often called acronyms. Generally, articles are usually dropped in acronyms.
The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
World Health Organization