In English, as in our mother-tongue, we need to report messages, speeches, comments, requests etc. of a person or persons to others.
Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlvi g‡Zv Bs‡iwR‡ZI †Kvb GKR‡bi msev`, e³e¨, Aby‡iva BZ¨vw` Ab¨ KvD‡K report Ki‡Z nq ev Rvbv‡Z nq|
Avgiv `yÕfv‡e e³vi K_v‡K report Ki‡Z cvwi|
- e³vi wbR¯^ K_v DØ„Z Ki‡j Zv‡K ejv nq Direct Speech.
- e³vi wbR¯^ K_v DØ„Z bv K‡i Zvi e³e¨‡K c‡iv¶fv‡e report Ki‡j nq Indirect Speech ev Reported Speech.
Jack says, “I feel dizzy.” (Direct Speech).
Jack says that he feels dizzy (Indirect Speech).
RULES FOR CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT
[Direct Speech ‡_‡K Indirect-G cwieZ©b Kivi wbqg]
(a) Reporting verb Gi cwieZ©b|
(b) Indirect Speech Gi c~‡e© GKwU linker ev ms‡hvRK e¨eüZ nq|
(c) Reported Speech Gi person I tense Gi cwieZ©b|
(d) ‰bKU¨ I `~iZ¡ m~PK word mg~‡ni cwieZ©b|
Change of Pronouns
Rule-1: Reported Speech Gi †¶‡Î e¨eüZ First person (I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours), Reporting verb Gi Subject Gi Gender I Person Abymv‡i cwieZ©b nq|
Direct : He said, “I will do my homework.”
Indirect : He said that he would do his homework.
Rule-2: Reported Speech Gi †¶‡Î e¨eüZ Second Person (you, your, yours) reporting verb Gi object Gi person Abyhvqx cwiewZ©Z nq|
Direct : My father said to me, “You do not do you duty.”
Indirect : My father told me that I did not do my duty.
Rule-3: Reported Speech Gi Aš—©MZ Third person (he, him, his, she, her, hers, they, them, their, theirs) AcwiewZ©Z _v‡K|
Direct : I said to you, “They have done their duty.”
Indirect : I told you that they had done their duty.
Change of Tenses
Rule-1: Direct Narration G Reporting Verb hw` Present ev Future Tense nq, Zvn‡j Indirect Narration Gi Verb Gi †Kvb cwieZ©b nq bv| †hgb-
Direct : Tamal says, “I have done my duty.”
Indirect : Tamal says that he has done his duty.
Rule-2: Direct Narration G Reporting Verb hw` Past Tense nq, Zvn‡j Indirect Narration G Reported Speech Gi Verb- corresponding Past Tense-G cwiewZ©Z nq|
Present Indefinite becomes Past Indefinite
Present Continuous becomes Past Continuous
Present Perfect becomes Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous becomes Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite becomes Past Perfect
Past Continuous becomes Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect becomes Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous becomes Past Perfect Continuous
Future (shall/will) becomes Future (would)
Change in Time and Place Expressions in Past Tense
now becomes then
ago becomes before
here becomes there
hence becomes thence
this becomes that
these becomes those
thus becomes so/ that way
come becomes go (not always)
today becomes that day
tonight becomes that night
tomorrow becomes the next day
next week becomes the following week
yesterday becomes the previous day
last night becomes the previous night
NARRATION OF ASSERTIVE SENTENCE
(a) Object bv _vK‡j ‘say’ Ges object _vK‡j reporting verb ‘tell’ nq|
(b) Assertive Sentence G Linker “that” e¨eüZ nq|
(c) e³e¨wU hw` Af¨vmMZ mZ¨ ev wPimZ¨ †evSvq, Zvn‡j tense Gi †Kvb cwieZ©b nq bv|
Direct : He said, “I wrote a letter.”
Indirect : He said that he had written a letter.
Direct : He said, “I will play football.”
Indirect : He said that he would play football.
NARRATION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE
(a) hw` Direct Speech-wU Interrogative Sentence nq, Zvn‡j say, tell cÖf„wZ Reporting Verb Indirect Speech G ask, enquire of, want to know BZ¨vw`‡Z cwiewZ©Z nq Ges GB Verb Gi ci GKwU Object e‡m|
(b) hw` Direct Speech-wU who, what, where, why, how BZ¨vw` cÖkœ‡evaK kã w`‡q ïi“ nq, Z‡e H cÖkœ‡evaK kã¸wj Indirect Speech G †_‡K hvq|
(c) wKš‘y hw` Direct Speech wU who, what, where, why, how cÖf„wZ †Kvb cÖkœ‡evaK kã w`‡q ïi“ bv nq, Zvn‡j ms‡hvRK kã wn‡m‡e if ev whether e‡m|
(d) Direct Speech Gi Interrogative Sentence wU Indirect Speech G Assertive G cwieZ©b nq|
Direct : He said to me, “What are you doing?”
Indirect : He asked me what I was doing.
Direct : “Where do you live?” asked the Stranger.
Indirect : The stranger asked (him) where he lived.
Questions Beginning with Do/Does/Did/Am/Is/Are Etc.
Direct : I said to the boy, “Did you go to school?”
Indirect : I asked the boy if he had gone to school.
Direct : She said to me, “Do you know the way to the station?”
Indirect : She asked me if I knew the way to the station.
NARRATION OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
(a) Reporting Verb A_© Abyhvqx order, request, advise, tell, ask BZ¨vw` nq|
(b) Negative Imperative ‡K Indirect Speech Ki‡Z n‡j Infinitive Gi c~‡e© not emv‡Z nq, Avevi not bv ewm‡q forbid, prohibit cÖf„wZ Reporting Verb emv‡bv hvq|
(c) Direct Speech Gi Please, Sir BZ¨vw` Indirect Speech G Zz‡j †`Iqv nq Ges Zvi A_© cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ Reporting Verb wU‡K request-G cwieZ©b Kiv nq A_ev kindly, politely BZ¨vw` Adverb ‡hvM Kiv nq|
Direct : Father said to me, “Go home at once.”
Indirect : Father ordered me to go home at once.
Direct : Mother said to me, “Don’t run in the sun.”
Indirect : Mother advised me not to run in the sun.
[Or] Mother forbade me to run in the sun.
Direct : He said to me, “Please open the door”.
Indirect : He requested me to open the door.
[Or] He told me politely to open the door.
Direct : He said to me, “Don’t do it again.”
Indirect : He told (asked) me not to do it again.
“Imperative Beginning with Let“
(a) hw` Direct Speech wU ‘Let’ w`‡q ïi“ nq Ges ‘let’ Øviv hw` †Kvb proposal ev suggestion †evSvq, Zvn‡j Reporting Verb-wU propose ev suggest nq| ZvQvov Imperative form wU Assertive form G cwiewZ©Z nq Ges linker wnmv‡e that e‡m|
(b) hw` Let Øviv Proposal ev Suggestion bv †evSvq, Zvn‡j Let -‡K ‘might’ ev ‘might be allowed to’ ev Abyiƒc form G cwiewZ©Z Kiv nq|
Direct : Lina said to her friends, “Let us have a picnic.”
Indirect : Lina proposed (suggested) to her friends that they should have a picnic.
Direct : We said, “Let him tell the story.”
Indirect : We said that he might (or might be allowed to) tell the story.
NARRATION OF OPTATIVE SENTENCE
(a) Optative Sentence ‡h‡nZz B”Qv ev cÖv_©bv †evSvq, †mRb¨ Reporting Verb nq wish, pray BZ¨vw`|
(b) Indirect Speech G Optative form wU Assertive form G cwiewZ©Z nq Ges linker wnmv‡e that e‡m|
Direct : Mother said to me, “May Allah bless you.”
Indirect : Mother prayed that Allah might bless me.
Direct : They said, “Long live our president.”
Indirect : They wished that their president might live long.
NARRATION OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
(a) Exclamatory Sentence ‡K Indirect Speech G cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡j Alas, Hurrah BZ¨vw` A_© Abymv‡i exclaim in grief, exclaim in joy, exclaim in wonder, swear, shout, applaud BZ¨vw` nq|
(b) ‡hLv‡b exclamation Gi cÖK…wZ m¤^‡Ü wbwðZ nIqv hvq bv, †mLv‡b Reporting Verb ‡KejgvÎ exclaim, cry out KivB mgxPxb|
(c) Indirect Speech G Exclamatory Sentence ev Av‡eMm~PK evK¨wU Assertive Sentence Gi g‡Zv statement ev wee„wZ‡Z cwiYZ nq I note of exclamation Gi cwie‡Z© full stop e‡m Ges linker wn‡m‡e that e¨eüZ nq|
(d) Exclamatory Sentence Av‡e‡Mi ZxeªZv †evSv‡Z What ev How w`‡q ïi“ n‡j mvaviYZ Noun Gi c~‡e© great Ges Adjective Gi c~‡e© very e‡m|
Direct : The boys said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”
Indirect : They boys exclaimed in (with) joy that they had won the match.
Direct : He said to me, “Alas! I could not save you.”
Indirect : He exclaimed in grief that he could not save me.
Direct : The boy said, “What a fool I am!.”
Indirect : The boy exclaimed (cried out) that he was a great fool.
Direct : He said, “How dirty the house is!”
Indirect : He exclaimed that the house was very dirty.
RULES OF PASSAGE NARRATION
- cÖ_‡g m¤ú~Y© passage wU fvj K‡i c‡o Gi cy‡ivcywi A_© AvqZ¡ Ki‡Z n‡e| Gici passage Gi Speaker (whwb K_v ej‡Qb) I Person spoken to (hvi mv‡_ K_v ejv n‡”Q) Ges Reported Speech ¸‡jv wK ai‡bi Sentence Zv wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e|
- Reporting verb Gi subject hw` D‡jL bv _v‡K †m‡¶‡Î subject wn‡m‡e The Speaker Ges object D‡jL bv _vK‡j object wn‡m‡e The person spoken to e¨eüZ nq|
Direct : “Give me the pen.”
Indirect : The speaker told the person spoken to to give him the pen.
- ‡Kvb e³vi ci ci GKvwaK Dw³ Assertive Sentence G _vK‡j 2q ev ZrcieZ©x Dw³¸wji †¶‡Î added, further added/also said, again said Ges Interrogative Sentence _vK‡j also asked, again asked, further asked nq|
- hLb Direct Speech G GK iK‡gi evK¨ cici _v‡K, ZLb Reporting Verb GKevi gvÎ e¨eüZ nq Ges evK¨¸wj and Øviv hy³ nq| hLb Indirect Speech G wfbœ wfbœ ai‡bi evK¨ †hvM Ki‡Z nq, ZLb wfbœ wfbœ Reporting Verb e¨eüZ nq| wfbœ wfbœ evK¨ †hvM Kivi GKwU cÖ‡qvRbxq †KŠkj nj then, added that, further said that, ev also said that e¨envi Kiv|
Direct : I said to him, “Who are you? What do you want?”
Indirect : I asked him who he was and what he wanted.
Direct : He said to his friend, “What time is it? My watch has stopped.”
Indirect : He asked his friend what time it was and also said that his watch had stopped.
Direct : The man said to the boy, “Why are you still waiting here? Go away now.”
Indirect : The man asked the boy why he was still waiting there. Then he ordered him to go away.
- Reporting Verb wU gv‡S ev †k‡l _vK‡jI Indirect Kivi mgq Zv‡K Sentence Gi ïi“‡Z wb‡q wb‡Z n‡e|
Direct : “You look a little bit like my mother”. Jerry said to the authoress, “Especially in the dark by the fire.”
Indirect : Jerry told the authoress that she looked a little bit like her mother especially in the dark by the fire.
Direct Narration G e¨eüZ Vocatives ev m‡¤^vab c`¸‡jv Indirect Narration G ev` †`qv †h‡Z cv‡i ev Ab¨fv‡e cwieZ©b Kiv P‡j| Vocative ‡K †hLv‡b Addressing as Øviv cÖKvk Kiv Qvov Ab¨ †Kvb weKí cvIqv hvq bv, †Kej †mLv‡b Addressing as e¨envi Kiv nq|
Direct : The teacher said, “Keep quiet, my dear boys.”
Indirect : The teacher affectionately asked the boys to keep quiet.
Direct : Father said, “Son, go to school.”
Indirect : Father asked his son to go to school.
Direct : “Jim, darling,” cried Della “Don’t look at me that way.”
Indirect : Addressing Jim as her darling, Della implored him not to look at her that way.
- Reported Speech G Sir e‡j KvD‡K m‡¤^vab Kiv n‡j †m‡¶‡Î Indirect Narration G respectfully ev with respect ev politely e¨eüZ nq|
Direct : The boy said to the headmaster, “Sir, please pardon me this time.”
Indirect : The boy respectfully requested the headmaster to pardon him that time.
- Yes ev No ‡K Indirect Speech G Avb‡Z n‡j Direct Speech G †h Verb Dn¨ Av‡Q, Zv‡K Avb‡Z nq A_ev H Verb Gi cwie‡Z© ‘do’ verb Avb‡Z nq|
Direct : The teacher said to the boy, “Are you ill?”
The boy said “No”.
Indirect : The teacher asked the boy if he was ill.
The boy replied that he was not.
Direct : The traveller said, “Can you tell me the way to the nearest inn?”
“Yes”, said the peasant.
Indirect : The traveller asked the peasant if he could tell him the way to the nearest inn.
The peasant replied that he could.
- Interrogative Sentence Gi DËi direct speech G msw¶ß n‡jI Indirect Speech G Dnv c~Y© Sentence G wjL‡Z n‡e| Direct : He said to me, “What are you doing ?”
I said “Nothing.”
Indirect : He asked me what I was doing.
I replied that I was doing nothing.
- Direct Speech G “Thank you” _vK‡j Indirect Kivi mgq Reporting Verb Gi Subject + thank + Reporting Verb Gi object e‡m|
Direct : The teacher said, “Thank you, my boys.”
Indirect : The teacher thanked the boys.
- Direct Speech G Hello/Hi _vK‡j Indirect G Reporting Verb greet nq|
Direct : “Hello, Rana. Where are you going?” said Rita.
Indirect : Rita greeted Rana and asked him where he was going.
- Direct Speech G “Good morning” e¨eüZ n‡j Indirect Narration G Reporting Verb “wish” G cwiewZ©Z nq| Avi ‘Good-bye’ ev ‘Good-night’ e¨eüZ n‡j reporting verb “bid” G cwiewZ©Z nq|
Direct : He said, “Good morning, my friends.”
Indirect : He wished good morning to his friends.
Direct : He said, “Good-bye, all my friends.”
Indirect : He hade good-bye to all his friends.
- “What’s your programme after the examination ?” asked Salam. Kamal said, “I’ve not yet decided. Can you suggest any ?” “Let us go on a picnic,” said Salam. “What an excellent idea! I shall certainly join you,” said Kamal.
- “We would like to go on an excursion. Can we have your permission, Sir ?” said the students. “Yes, you can arrange it after the examination is over. And you should choose a historical place for that”, replied the headmaster. “Thank you, sir.”
- “My sons, listen to me. A great treasure lies hidden in the land. I am going to leave it to you.” “How’ll we find it?” said the sons. “You must dig the land for it,” said the old man.
- The teacher said to the boy, “Do you think that honesty is the best policy ?” The boy said, “Yes, Sir, I think so.” “Then learn to be honest from your boyhood,” said the teacher. “Thank you, Sir,” said the boy. “May Allah grant you a long life,” said the teacher.
- Rashed said to Karim, “How are you ? I went to your hostel yesterday, but did not find you. Where did you go ?” “I went to the station,” said Karim, “I had to receive my maternal uncle there.”
- Father said to his son, “Why are you making late ? Go to school now.” “No, I am not going to school today. I feel dizzy,” said his son.
- A fruit seller said, “Which fruits do you want to buy ? I have apples from Australia, oranges from Darjeeling, grapes from Kashmir.” The customer said, “What fruits of our country do you have ?” The seller said, “I have coconut, guava and jackfruit.” The customer said, “Give one kg of guava as it will be the substitute of Australian apples.”
- The old man said, “Can you give me some food ? I’ve been starving for two days.” The maid said, “Why do you beg ? Can’t you work ?” “No, I am unable to work,” said the old man.
- Zaman said to me, “Have you finished reading the book I gave you yesterday ?” “Yes, I have finished reading the book”, I replied. “What an interesting book it is! I wish I would borrow the book earlier!” I said. “Will you return the book to me today ?” he asked.
- The passer-by stopped me and said, “Sir, can you tell me the way to the nearest inn ?” “Yes, I can,” “I said, “Go straight about 100 yards and turn left. You will find it.” “Thank you sir,” he said.
- “Have you killed the rats ?” said the Mayor. “Yes, I have,” said the piper. “Give me the promised money.” “How funny!” said the Mayor. “We cannot give you so much money. Take only fifty.”
- The man said to the manager, “May I come in, sir ?” “Yes, come in. What do you want ?” said the manager. “I want to open a bank account in your bank,” said the man. “Can you tell me how I can open a saving account ?”
- “Did people use stamps in those days ?” asked Rafiq. “Yes!” answered Mr. Jamil, “The first stamps were used in 1840.” “Are they easy to get now ?” asked Shafiq. “They are very difficult to get,” his uncle replied.
- “Why did you not go to school yesterday ?” said the mother to the girl. “I was ill, mum,” the girl replied. “How are you today?” the mother asked again. “Well,” said the girl. “Don’t worry for me.”
- Once I asked a sweet little girl, “What is your mother’s name ?” She replied cleverly, “I know my mother’s name but I won’t tell you that.” I said, “What a clever girl you are!” “I don’t tell my mother’s name to anybody whom I don’t know”, she spoke with an air of confidence.
- “Ratan, have you done your English today ?” asked the teacher. “Yes, sir I did it. But I haven’t understood some grammatical points,” replied Ratan. “Where is the problem ?” said the teacher. “Let us try again.”
- “What is the time by your watch ?” he said. “It is half past nine,” I said. “I want to go to the college. Would you accompany me, please ?” “No, I’m sorry,” replied I.
- “Great king of the genies,” called the monster, “I will never again disobey you.” Hearing those words, the fisherman became brave and said, “Tell me why you were locked up in the vase.” The giant angrily looked at him and said, “Speak to me more politely or I shall kill you.”
- “What are you doing now, Jack?” I said. “I am watching an interesting programme on television.” “Aren’t you wasting your time?” I said. “No, I don’t think so,” said he.
- The class teacher of class X said to the students, “Do you like to go on a study tour?” “Yes”, said all the students to their class teacher. Then he said, “Take the permission from your parents.” One of the students said, “Where will we go, sir ?” “It will be decided after a discussion,” said the teacher.