1. Symbol: A word which has another meaning or even several meanings is called symbol. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.
2. Alliteration: Alliteration means the repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.
3. Personification: Personification is the attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
4. Line, verse, and stanza: The single written poetic line is called the Line when two lines are combined they make a Verse and when two or more verses are collected, they form a Stanza.
5. Image and Imagery: A figurative or descriptive language that appeals to the five senses or the use of words and sentences to create an object or scene in the mind of the reader or listener is called an image. Imagery is the whole painted atmosphere created by the use of images.
6. Syllables: The unit of sound is called a syllable such as help has one syllable; but help-ing has two.
7. Wit: Wit is the ability to make brilliant, imaginative or clever connections between ideas and deftness. The original meaning of wit is knowledge, and then intellect.
8. Sonnet: Sonnet is a short lyric poem with 14 iambic pentameter lines. There are two types of sonnets; one is Petrarchan and another is Shakespearean.
9. Epic: Epic is a long narrative poem, on a great and serious subject related in an elevated style and centered on a heroic or quasidivine figure on whose actions defend on the fate of tribe or nation or the human race.
10. Hero: Hero is a figure of great national or even cosmic importance. The epic hero has super human strength, common character or intellect fighting for nation or collective interest.
11. Invocation: Getting inspiration or guidance or courage from the goddess of Muse before doing any hard task especially in the beginning of an epic.
12. Metaphysical Poetry: Metaphysical means beyond physical or something abstract. A metaphysical poem is a poem that consists of abrupt beginning, abstract theme, and use of conceits, bending of passion and arguments and colloquialism. The major theme of this poetry is love, death and religious faith which are all conceptual truths.