1. Allegory: Allegory means a story with in another story. It is a detailed description of one thing under the image of another. A device; a picture or a piece of writing in which meaning is symbolically represented. The simplest form of Allegory consists of a story or situation written in such a way as to have two coherent meanings. The Old Man and the Sea is an allegorical novel.
2. Simile: An unequivocal comparison between two different things by using ‘like’ ‘as’ ‘so’ ‘such’ ‘such as’ etc. For example; the girl is as beautiful as the rose. Here two different things ‘girl’ and ‘rose’ are compared by the help of as.
3. Metaphor: An unequivocal comparison between two different things without using ‘like’ ‘as’ ‘so’ ‘such’ ‘such as’ etc. For example; Life’s nothing but a walking shadow; a poor player. You are a lion of the jungle.
4. Pun: When a word will give two meanings or words is called pun. For example; I know she lies with many people. Here the word ‘Lie’ bears two meanings; one is she sleeps with many people and another is she speaks false with many people.
5. Metonymy: It is a figure of speech where one thing is replaced by another. The relationship between two things will be loosely connected. For example: I have read many Nazrul. Here Nazrul is replaced by the works of Nazrul.