Critical Analysis of the poem “Looking Glass” by Kamala Das
One of the facts that might come to light in this process is our tendency to insist, when we praise a poet, upon those aspects of his work in which he least resembles anyone else.
The line has been quoted from T. S. Eliot’s hypersensitive essay Tradition and the Individual Talent. In this line he has indicated us how we should judge a writer or an artist.
Theory-& analysis of Transcendentalism according to Emerson’s Nature
Generally, we human beings have an innate sense of knowledge about the divine power and nature and it is considered as Transcendentalism. It went beyond the mind and logic. Transcendentalists believe that the divine can only be felt and it is not always possible to understand beauty of nature, or for that matter, beauty of anything, by the help of mind. It can be rather be only felt from the intuitive self.
Definition of Syntagmatic: The words which follow the chain of command in a sentence are called syntagmatic. It is the major part of linguistics. It helps us to design a sentence and make it strong.
Denoting the relationship between two or more linguistic units used sequentially to make well-formed structures may be considered as syntagmatic. The identity of a linguistic unit within a language is described by a combination of its syntagmatic and its paradigmatic relations.
Langue and Parole: Langue and Parole are two French terms that mean- “Language System” and “Language behavior”. According to Lyons (1968) – “A Langue system is a social phenomenon or institution, which of itself is purely abstract in that it has no physical existence but which is actualized on particular occasions in the language behavior of individual members of the language community.”
In the twentieth century Anglo-American criticism Ivor Armstrong Richards is the most influential critic. Among the moderns he is the only critic who has expressed a systematic and complete theory of the literary art. According to the view of George Watson, “Richards’ claim to have established Anglo-American New Criticism of the thirties and forties is unassailable.”
His reputation as a critic: His reputation as a critic lies on a limited number of critical books he wrote. The relevance of psychology to literary studies emerges clearly in his first book, The Foundations of Aesthetics (1922), written in relationship with his two friends. In this book the authors have tried to define ‘beauty’ by studying its effects on the readers.
During the late twenties and early thirties of the present century, New Criticism was born and cultivated. Sociological or Marxian criticism is regarded as a litterateur, who is considered as a product of the society in which he lived. Generally New Critics are opposed to the biographical, historical, sociological and comparative approach of conventional criticism. Similarly, they reject the traditional division of literature into periods and groups for the purpose of criticism.
Their criticism is Basic or Ontological, and not Extrinsic. A poem which is a piece of literature is the thing in itself, with a definite entity of its own separate both from the poet and the socio-cultural milieu in which it is produced.
Introduction: We observe there are various manners and techniques, streams and irritable currents of criticism in style at present. Generally Modern literary criticism has an unclear change and it has been influenced by new discoveries and researches in the field of sciences, sociology, psychology, anthropology, linguistics and philosophy.
Psychological Criticism: If we notice in the first place we will find there is a psychological school of criticism. It concentrates on human psyche more and more exploring, the hidden motives and urges behind a work of art. It is believed that a work of art protects the unfulfilled desires and repressed characters of the writer. It wants to concentrate criticism more scientific and technical and objective.
Dr. F. R. Levis is a Professor and an academic critic who is also regarded as one of outstanding figures of New Criticism in England. Sometimes his criticism is called ‘Philosophical Criticism’ as it is the reviver of the philosophical criticism whose great supporters were Sidney, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley and Arnold.
Great achievement of F.R. Leavis: