There are two kinds of Naration. They are a. Direct Naration
b. Indirect Naration
Direct and Indirect Naration
The speech quoted in the exact words of the speaker is Direct Speech or Direct Naration. It is always written within inverted commas.
Example: a. Reporting Speech: Monika says,
b. Reporting verb : says
c. Reported speech : “I read in Rasulpur High School,”
d. Verb of the reported speech : read
The speech reported in narrative form without quoting the exact words of the speaker is an Indirect speech or Indirect Naration.
Note: Reporting speech and the reported speech are joined by a linking word and the commas are omitted.
Assertive sentence or statement
General rules: If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in reported speech is not changed.
Direct: Monika says, “I am fine.”
Indirect: Monika says that she is fine.
Direct: The girl says, “I will do it”
Indirect: The girl says that she will do it.
Direct: He says, “I went there yesterday”
Indirect : Mr. Siddik master will say, “I am ready to go.”
Indirect: Mr. Siddik Master will say that he is ready to go.
* If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported speech is changed into corresponding past form.
Direct: Shawn said, “I am fine.”
Indirect: Shawn said that he was fine.
Direct: He said, “I want to go”
Indirect: He said that I wanted to go.
Direct : He said, ” I am reading a book”
Ind: He said that he was reading a book.
Direct: He said, “I have learnt my lesson.”
Indirect: He said that he had learnt his lesson.
Direct: He said, “I have been eating rice.”
Indir: He said that he had been eating rice.
Direct: He said, “I shall have done it”
Indirect: He said that he would have done it.
Direct: He said, “I had reached school before the bell rang.”
Direct: He said that he had reached school before the bell rang.
Direct: He said, “I will go”
Indir: He said that he would go.
Direct: He said, “I can do it”
Indirect: He said that he could do it.
* If the reporting verb is in the past, and the verb of the reported speech is in the past indifinite tense , it is changed into past parfect tense.
Direct: Sajuti said, ” my uncle did it”
Indir: Sajuti said that her uncle had done it.
direct: Oisy said, “I went to school”
Indirect: Oysi said that she had gone to school.
Direct: Khalil said, “I wrote the book.”
Indirect: Khalil said that he had written the book.
Direct: Fahad said to me, “I was sick.”
Indirect: Fahad told me that he had been sick.
If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported speech is in the past continuous, it is changed into the past perfect continuous tense.
Direct: He said, “I was reading a book”
Indirect: He said that he had been reading a book.
Direct: Monir said to me, “I was making a research to solve the problem.”
Indirect: Monir told me that he had been making a research to solve the problem.
Note : The use of the conjunction ‘that’ between the reporting speech and the reported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.
¤If the direct speech describes a universal truth, constant fact, habitual fact, geographical fact and quotations, the verb in the reported speech remains unchanged:
Direct : The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
Direct: Forhad said, “I read the holy quran every morning.”
Indirect: Forhad said that he reads the holy quran every morning.
Direct: Nasir said, “Truth is beauty.”
Indirect: Nasir said that Truth is beauty.
* The first person of the direct speech is changed into the person of the man spoken to and the 3rd peron does not have any change.
Direct: Saon said to Oysi , “your father will go to my office.”
Indirect: Saon told Oysi that his father would go to his offic.
Direct: Saon say to you, “you did not help me”
Indirect: Saon tells you that you did not help him.
Direct: They said to us, ” He will meet you”
Indir: They told us that he would meet us.
* If the reported speech has two or more verbs occuring at the same time, the past tense of verb is not changed:
Direct: Siddik master said, ” Mr. Rahman worked hard and got it”
Indirect: Siddik master said that Mr. Rahman worked hard and got it.