Cornonavirus(Covid-19)

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that usually cause mild illnesses, such as the common cold. However, certain types of coronavirus can infect the lower airway, causing serious illnesses like pneumonia or bronchitis. Most people get infected with coronaviruses at some point in their lives and the majority of these infections are harmless. The new coronavirus that causes the covid-19 illness is a notable exception.

Coronaviruses have extraordinarily large single-stranded RNA genomes – approximately 26,000 to 32,000 bases or RNA “letters” in length. Coronavirus particles are surrounded by a fatty outer layer called an envelope and usually appear spherical, as seen under an electron microscope, with a crown or “corona” of club-shaped spikes on their surface.

Covid-19

The virus that causes covid-19 is known as SARS-CoV-2. It appears to have first emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. The outbreak has since spread across China to other countries around the world. By the end of January.

The most commonly reported symptoms include a fever, dry cough and tiredness, and in mild cases people may get just a runny nose or a sore throat. In the most severe cases, people with the virus can develop difficulty breathing, and may ultimately experience organ failure. Some cases are fatal.

Coronaviruses replicate their RNA genomes using enzymes called RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, which are prone to errors, but genomic analysis so far suggests that covid-19 is mutating slowly, reducing the chance of it changing to become more deadly.

There are currently no vaccines or specific drug treatments for coronaviruses, but efforts to develop a vaccine are underway and HIV and Ebola drugs are being tested in people with covid-19.

On 18 March, the World Health Organization (WHO) said they had begun a trial of the most promising drugs, including the long-used antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, a new antiviral drug called remdesivir and a combination of two HIV drugs called lopinavir and ritonavir. The HIV drugs will also be tested in combination with an antiviral called interferon beta.

On 22 March, several countries in Europe, including the UK, launched a collaborative trial of the same drugs, which will complement the WHO effort.

Many other potential treatments are being explored, particularly the possibility of developing antibodies against covid-19.

Other severe coronaviruses

At least two other types of human coronavirus – Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) – are known to cause severe symptoms.

SARS-CoV first emerged in 2002in Guangdong, China as an unusual pneumonia, which developed into life-threatening respiratory failure in certain cases. The virus rapidly spread across 29 countries, infecting more than 8000 people and killing about 800.

The MERS-CoV epidemic appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, with people experiencing similar symptoms to SARS-CoV but dying at a much higher rate of 34 per cent. Unlike SARS-CoV, which spread quickly and widely, MERS-CoV has been mainly limited to the Middle East.

Spread from animals to people

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning that they can be transmitted to people from animals. Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV originally came from bats, though other animals – including camels in the case of MERS – can act as intermediaries that spread coronaviruses to humans.

Many of the early  cases of covid-19 were traced back to a large seafood and animal market in Wuhan.  The virus is thought to have come from bats, possibly via an intermediary animal.

 

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The Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi: the smallest PC

#What is The Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a Computer monitor or TV and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python.

#How does the Raspberry Pi Work?

An SD card inserted into the slot on the board acts as the hard drive for the  Raspberry Pi.  It is powered by USB and the video output can be hooked up to a traditional RCA TV set, a more modern monitor, or even a TV using the HDMI port.

#Raspberry Pi board Structure:

Depending on the model, the Raspberry Pi has either 40 or 26 dedicated interface pins. In all cases these include a UART, an I2C bus, a SPI bus with two chip selects, I2S audio, 3V3, 5V and ground .The maximum number of GPIO can theoretically be indefinitely expanded by making use of the I2C or SPI bus.

There is also a dedicated CSI-2 camera port for the Raspberry Pi Camera Module ad a DSI display port for the Raspberry Pi LCD Touch Screen Display. So, it means we can use a Raspberry Pi as our personal computer.

#Uses of Raspberry Pi:

  • Using Internet
  • Learning Program
  • Controlling ROBOT
  • Playing Games Natively
  • Retro Gaming Machine
  • Building a Mine Craft Game Server
  • Building a Stop Motion Camera
  • Broadcasting a Pirate FM Radio Station
  • Building a smart mirror etc…

#Operating Systems of Raspberry Pi:

  • WINDOWS 10 ARM64
  • Windows 10 loT Core[2]
  • LINUX
  • FreeBSD
  • OpenBSD
  • Net BSD
  • Plan 9
  • RISC OS

#MEMORY:

1, 2 or 4 GB LPDDR4-2400 RAM

#CPU:

1.5 GHz 64/32-bit quad-core ARM CORTEX-A72

#STORAGE:

2-128 GB Micro SD Card

 

#New Features:

  • Bluetooth 4.1
  • 11n Wi-Fi
  • USB 2.0
  • USB 3.0

#Raspberry Pi Price:

The price of a Raspberry Pi depends on its model. In our country (BD) the price is between 4000tk-6000tk. The global price is given on internet.

#Why we should learn Raspberry Pi using:

Raspberry Pi is a long lasting micro computer. A Raspberry Pi   works at least 5 years without any problem.  With a Raspberry Pi   one can learn programming and build many useful devices by his own. It is so enjoyable that one can use his leisure time properly. It has no disadvantage. So, everyone should learn and know about it.

 

Programming Language Compiler

Programming language Compiler

A compiler is a computer program which translates source programming language into user’s target programming language . If anyone wants to know about compiling then the definition should be “ A compiler does that what is compiling ” . 

Compiler is only used for higher level programming languages; such as Python , Ruby , C# etc.  Scripting languages ( JavaScript , Typescript etc.) don’t need a compiler .

It transforms source programming language in binary or machine language code . Humans can read their languages but a computer can’t . Human’s greatest invention computer only knows its own language. So , we can say a compiler first transforms a higher level programming language into binary. Then computer reads it and gives output .

If anyone wants to turn a programming language into another programming language then he has to transform the binary code which was compiled earlier into his target language . This is called compiling too .

 

HSC English 2nd Paper Model Test 2020

HSC Model Test – 2020 (08)

English 2nd Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                                                          Time: 70 Minutes

Part A: Grammar (Marks 60)

1. Fill in the blanks in the following text with articles as necessary. Some of the blanks may not require an article. Put a cross (×) in those blanks.                                                                        .5×10=5

Before the beginning of (a) —– use of human language, (b) —– communication took place between humans through signs and gestures. As humans began to use their (c) —– vocal chords, these silent gestures were no longer used as (d) —– primary means of (e) —– communication. But these did not completely disappear. They involved as (f) —– form of art which came to be known as (g) —–. In (h) —– Bangladeshi village, (i) —– little boy came to know about mime as he watched (j) —– performance in his village.

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HSC English 1st Paper Model Test 2020

HSC Model Test 2020 (07)

Subject: English 1st Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                                                  Time: 70 Minutes                                                        1. Read the following text and answer the questions A and B.                                                                  

The term ‘diaspora’ is used to refer to people who have left their homelands and settled in other parts of the world, either because they were forced to do so or because they wanted to leave on their own. The word is increasingly used for such people as a collective group and/or a community. The world has seen many Diasporas but scholars have been studying the phenomenon with great interest only in recent decades. Among the great Diasporas of history is that of the Jewish people, who were forced to leave their lands in ancient times. The movement of Aryans from Central Europe to the Indian subcontinent thousands of years ago is also a noteworthy diaspora, although the causes of this diaspora are unclear. In twentieth century history, the Palestinian diaspora has attracted a lot of attention and been a cause of concern for world leaders because of the plight of Palestinians. There have been massive Diasporas in Africa, too, over the centuries, either because of war or because of the ravages of nature. But the chief reason why the phenomenon of diaspora is attracting so much attention now is globalization.                   

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HSC English 2nd Paper Model Test 2020

HSC Model Test – 2020 (4)

English 2nd Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                                                               Time: 70 Minutes

Part A: Grammar (Marks 60)

1. Fill in the blanks in the following text with articles as necessary. Some of the blanks may not require an article. Put a cross (×) in those blanks.        0.5×10=5

Honesty is (a) —– divine virtue. All people do not possess this (b) —–. (c) —– man who possesses this quality is (d) —– happiest man in life. Truly speaking, (e) —– man should have trustworthiness because nobody trusts (f) —– liar. But all respect (g) —– honest man. (h) —– honesty can never be bought. It is (i) —– rare quality which may be found even in (j) —– poor family.

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HSC English 1st Paper Model Test 2020

HSC Model Test 2020 (03)

Subject: English 1st Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                                                  Time: 70 Minutes             

 1. Read the following text and answer the questions A and B.                                                                                              Kuakata, locally known as Sagar Kannya (Daughter of the Sea) is a rare scenic spot located on the southernmost tip of Bangladesh. Kuakata in Latachapli union under Kalapara Police Station of Patuakhali district is about 30 km in length and 6 km in breadth. It is 70 km from Patuakhali district headquarters and 320 km from Dhaka. An excellent combination of the picturesque natural beauty, sandy beaches, blue sky and the shimmering expanse of water of the Bay of Bengal and the evergreen forest makes Kuakata a much sought after tourist destination. The name Kuakata takes its origin from the story of a ‘Kua’—or well—dug on Continue reading

Diaspora Paragraph

Diaspora

‘Diaspora’ is a term by which we can understand those people who have left their own motherland and settled in another country of the world, either because they were forced to do so or because they willingly left their own country. In the history of civilization, we can find many events of diaspora. The Jewish were the first diaspora in the history of mankind. Their ancestor Abraham was forced to leave Iraq and then he took shelter in Egypt. Then his off spring Jews were forced to leave Palestine during Islamic Era. The Jews became diaspora in Europe and then in America. Coming from the central Europe, the Aryans settled in Indian sub-continent. Here the Aryans were also diaspora but the cause of their migration is also unknown in the twenty century, after the World War II, the Jews started gathering in Palestine named Israel. The Palestinians were forced to leave Israel which was their own motherland. They have become Diasporas in different countries of the world. The political turmoil in the Middle East which includes like Syria, Libya and other countries in the middle east, Europe and America. Most of the reasons behind the migration are the revenge of nature and most common reason is globalization.

HSC English 2nd Paper Model Test 2020

HSC Model Test – 2020 (02)

English 2nd Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                                                           Time: 70 Minutes

                                    Part A: Grammar (Marks 60)

1. Fill in the blanks in the following text with articles as necessary. Some of the blanks may not require an article. Put a cross (×) in those blanks. 0.5×10=5

Truthfulness is (a) —– greatest of all (b) —– virtues which make (c) —– person really great. If we do not cultivate (d) —– habit of speaking (e) —– truth, we cannot command (f) —– trust of others. (g) —– man whom nobody believes  can never be famous in (h) —– life. We may be successful once or twice by telling (i) —– lie but it never about (j) —– good result.

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HSC English 1st Paper Model Test 2020

 HSC Model Test 2020 (01)

Subject: English 1st Paper

Full Marks: 60                                                                                             Time: 70 Minutes                                

1. Read the following text and answer the questions A and B.                                                                                                         When you are in the driving seat of a car, you have the steering and the horn in your hands, the brake and accelerator under your feet, eyes open looking ahead, left and right. The same can be said about a motorcycle rider, with some modifications. These are all very visible. But, behind all, there is something that keeps working unseen. And that is the Central Processing Unit (CPU), your brain. CPUs are artificially intelligent machines that are programmed to do specific jobs under fixed conditions and judgement. But the human brain is intelligent by nature. It is the most sophisticated machine that is able to operate on ever-changing conditions and standards of judgement. As conditions in the traffic keep invariably changing, this virtue of sophistication of your brain must be at work when you are driving. The difference between traffic in the roads and highways and racing circuit must not be blurring inside you. Never imagine yourself to be a Michael Schumacher driving an F-1 at 300 mph. Leave no room for fantasy. You must always be ready to encounter unexpected behaviour from any vehicle or pedestrian. ‘Keep your cool’ is easy to advice but difficult to maintain. Still you must always restrain yourself because, at the end of the day, you don’t want to be regarded as a killer. Now you see, the last thing that differentiates you from a computer is your conscience.                                                                                                                                                                                                     Continue reading