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Jan 11

Mahbub Murad

Timeline of British History

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Timeline of British History

Timeline: 1066 -1485 AD

1066Harold II is crowned king the day after Edward the Confessor dies. Tostig and Harold Hardraada of Norway invade England: Harold defeats them at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, killing both; Battle of Hastings: 19 days after battle of Stamford Bridge, William of Normandy lands at Pevensey, defeats and kills Harold; William I, the Conqueror, first Norman King of England (to 1087)


1067 – Work is begun on building the Tower of London.

1068 – The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the “Harrying of the North” ): the region is laid waste

1070 – Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England; Lanfranc, an Italian lawyer, becomes William’s formidable Archbishop of Canterbury. Lanfranc rebuilds Canterbury Cathedral and establishes the primacy of the see of Canterbury over York, but does not enforce clerical celibacy.

1072 – William invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward
the Wake.

1080 – William, in a letter, reminds the bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance.

1086 – Domesday Book is completed in England

1087 – William II, Rufus, King of England (to 1100); his elder brother, Robert, is Duke of Normandy

1093 – Donald Bane, King of Scots (to 1097), following the death of his brother, Malcolm III, in battle against the English

1097 – Edgar, second son of Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland (to 1107); he defeats Donald Bane with the assistance of William II of England

1099Crusaders capture Jerusalem; Godfrey of Bouillon is elected King of Jerusalem

1100 – Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror, King of England (to 1135), following assassination of William Rufus

1106 – Henry I defeats his brother Rober, Duke of Normandy, at battle of Tinchebrai: Robert remains captive for life

1113 – Founding of the Order of St. John is formally acknowledged by the papacy

1114 – Matilda (Maud), daughter of Henry I of England marries Emperor Henry V

1118 – Hugues de Payens founds the order of Knights of Templars

1120 – William, heir of Henry I of England, is drowned in wreck of the “White Ship

1129 – Empress Matilda, widow of Henry V, marries Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, nicknamed ” Plantagenet ”

1139 – Matilda lands in England

1141 – Matilda captures Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, and reigns disastrously as queen; she is driven out by a popular rising and Stephen restored

1148 – Matilda leaves England for the last time

1152 – Marriage of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine is annulled on grounds of blood relationship; Eleanor marries Henry of Anjou, allying Aquitaine to his lands of Anjou and Normandy, two months after her divorce

1153 – Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda, invades England and forces Stephen to make him heir to the English throne

1154 – Henry II, King of England (to 1189); he also rules more than half of France; Pope Adrian IV (to 1159) (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope)

1155 – Henry II appoints the Archdeacon of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket, as Chancellor

1159 – Henry II levies scutage, payment in cash instead of military service

1162 – Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and at once quarrels with Henry II over the Church’s rights

1164Constitutions of Clarendon; restatement of laws governing trial of ecclesiastics in England; Becket is forced to flee to France

1170 – Becket is reconciled with Henry II, returns to Canterbury; is murdered by four knights after Henry’s hasty words against him

1173 – Rebellion of Henry’s eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, supported by their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine; Thomas a Becket canonized

1189 – Richard I, Coeur de Lion, eldest surviving son of Henry II, King of England (to 1199)

1191 – The bodies of King Arthur and Guinevere were reported to have been exhumed from a grave at Glastonbury Abbey; Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre

1192 – Richard I captures Jaffa, makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy, Duke Leopold of Austria

1193 – Leopold hands Richard over to Emperor Henry VI, who demands ransom

1194 – Richard is ransomed and returned to England

1199 – John Lackland, youngest son of Henry II, King of England (to 1216)

1203 – John of England orders the murder of his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany

1207 – Pope Innocent III appoints Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury (Langton is the man who divided the books of the Bible into chapters); John refuses to let him take office

1208 – Innocent III lays England under interdict

1209 – Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property

1213 – Innocent III declares John deposed; John resigns his kingship to the pope and receives it back as a holding from the Roman legate, thereby ending the interdict.

1215 – Signing of Magna Carta; English barons force John to agree to a statement of their rights

1216 – Henry III becomes king of England at age nine (to 1272)

1227 – Henry III begins personal rule in England

1256 – Prince Llewellyn sweeps English from Wales

1264Simon de Montfort and other English barons defeat Henry III at battle of Lewes

1265 – De Montfort’s Parliament: burgesses from major towns summoned to Parliament for the first time; Henry III’s son Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at battle of Evesham

1269 – Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III.

1272Edward I, King of England (to 1307)

1283 – Edward I defeats and kills Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and executes Llewellyn’s brother David; conquest of Wales complete

1290 – Edward I expells all Jews from England

1291 – Scots acknowledge Edward I of England as suzerain; he arbitrates in succession dispute

1295Model Parliament of Edward I : knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament

1296 – Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from Scottish throne

1297 – Battle of Cambuskenneth: Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English army

1298 – Edward I defeats Wallace at battle of Falkirk and reconquers Scotland

1301 – Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales

1305 – The English capture and execute William Wallace

1306 – New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I, the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone

1307 – Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II, King of England (to 1327)

1310 – English barons appoint 21 peers, the Lords Ordainers, to manage Edward II’s household

1312 – Order of Knights Templar abolished

1314 – Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

1326 – Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer sail from France with an army to rebel against Edward II of England

1327 – Parliament declares Edward II deposed, and his son accedes to the throne as Edward III. Edward II is hideously murdered, nine months later

1328 – Charles IV dies, ending the Capetian dynasty. Philip of Valois succeeds him as Philip VI.

1329 – Edward III of England does simple homage for Aquitaine (Guienne), but refuses to do liege homage.

1333 – Edward III invades Scotland on Balliol’s behalf and defeats the Scots at battle of Halidon Hill

1336 – Edward places an embargo on English exports of wool to Flanders.

1337 – Philip declares Edward’s fiefs forfeit and begins harassing the frontiers of Aquitaine; Edward III, provoked by these attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France; “The Hundred Years’ War ” begins (ends 1453)

1338 – Treaty of Koblenz: alliance between England and the Holy Roman Empire; Edward III formally claims the French crown.

1340 – Naval victory at Sluys gives England the command of the English Channel; English Parliament passes four statues providing that taxation shall be imposed only by Parliament

1346 – Edward III of England invades France with a large army and defeats an even bigger army under Philip VI at the Battle of Crécy

1347 – The English capture Calais

1348 – Edward III establishes the Order of the Garter; Black Death (bubonic plague) reaches England

1351 – The English remove the Pope’s power to give English benefices to foreigners

1353 – Statue of Praemunire: English Parliament forbids appeals to Pope

1356 – Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, defeats the French at the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II

1358 – The Jacquerie

1360 – Peace of Bretigny ends the first stage of the Hundred Years’ War. Edward III gives up claim to French throne

1369 – Second stage of war between England and France begins

1370 – French troops commanded by Bertrand du Guesclin; Edward, the Black Prince, sacks Limoges

1372 – French troops recapture Poitou and Brittany; Naval battle of La Rochelle: French regain control of English Channel

1373 – John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, leads new English invasion of France

1374 – John of Gaunt returns to England and takes charge of the government; Edward III in his dotage, the Black Prince is ill

1375 – Truce of Bruges ends hostilities between England and France

1376 – The Good Parliament in England, called by Edward the Black Prince, introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince, aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif, an Oxford don, calling for Church reforms

1377 – Richard II, son of the Black Prince, King of England (to 1399)

1381Peasants’ Revolt in England; John Wyclif, an Oxford theologian, publishes his “Confession”, denying that the “substance” of bread and wine are miraculously changed during the Eucharist.

1382 – John Wyclif is expelled from Oxford because of his opposition to certain Church doctrines

1386 – John of Gaunt leads an expedition to Castile, which he claims in his wife’s name; fails 1388

1387 – Geoffrey Chaucer begins work on The Canterbury Tales

1389 – Richard II, aged 22, assumes power

1394 – Richard II leads expedition to subdue Ireland; returns to England 1395

1396 – Richard II marries the seven-year old Princess Isabella of France

1399 – Death of John of Gaunt; Gaunt’s eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, lands in Yorkshire with 40 followers, and soon has 60,000 supporters: Richard II is deposed; Bolingbroke becomes Henry IV, King of England (to 1413)

1400 – Richard II murdered at Pontefract Castle; Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion

1401 – Persecution of Lollards for revolting against clergy.

1402 – Henry IV enters Wales in pursuit of Glendower

1403 – Battle of Shrewsbury; rebellion by the Percy family: Henry IV defeats and kills Harry “Hotspur” Percy

1406 – Henry, Prince of Wales, defeats Welsh

1413 – Henry V, King of England (to 1422)

1415 – Henry V invades France, and defeats the French at Agincourt

1416 – Death of Owen Glendower

1420 – Treaty of Troyes

1422 – Deaths of Henry V of England and Charles VI of France; Henry VI, King of England (to 1461)

1424 – John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England, defeats the French at Cravant

1428 – Henry VI begins siege of Orleans

1429 – A French force, led by military commander Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc), relieves the siege of Orleans; Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims

1430 – Burgundians capture Jeanne d’Arc and hand her over to the English

1431 – Jeanne d’Arc burned as a witch at Rouen; Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris

1453 – Bordeaux falls to the French, Hundred Years’ War ends; England’s only French possession is Calais; In England, Henry VI becomes insane

1454 – Richard, Duke of York, is regent of England while Henry VI is insane; Printing with movable type is perfected in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg

1455 – Henry VI recovers. Richard of York is replaced by Somerset and excluded from the Royal Council; War of the Roses – civil wars in England between royal houses of York and Lancaster (until 1485); Battle of St. Albans. Somerset defeated and killed

1460 – Battle of Wakefield. Richard of York is defeated and killed; Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker) captures London for the Yorkists; Battle of Northampton: Henry VI is captured by Yorkists

1461 – Battles of Mortimer’s Cross and Towton: Richard’s son, Edward of York, defeats Lancastrians and becomes king; Edward IV, King of England (to 1483)

1465 – Henry VI imprisoned by Edward IV

1466 – Warwick’s quarrels with Edward IV begin; forms alliance with Louis XI

1470 – Warwick turns Lancastrian: he defeats Edward IV and restores Henry VI

1471 – Battle of Barnet. Edward IV defeats and kills Warwick; Henry VI dies, probably murdered in the Tower of London

1475 – Edward IV invades France; Peace of Piequigny between England and France

1476 – William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster

1483 – Death of Edward IV; Edward V, King of England; he is deposed by his uncle, Richard Duke of Gloucester; Richard III, King of England (to 1485); Edward V and his brother are murdered in the Tower of London

1484 – Caxton prints Morte D’Arthur, the poetic collection of legends about King Arthur compiled by Sir Thomas Malory

1485Battle of Bosworth Field: Henry Tudor, with men, money and arms provided by Charles VIII of France, defeats and kills Richard III in the decisive (but not final) battle of the Wars of the Roses.

Timeline: 1486 -1689 AD

1486 – Henry VII (Tudor) married Elizabeth of York uniting houses of York and Lancaster.

1487 – Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses, Henry VII, defeats Yorkist army “led” by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward, the nephew of Edward IV, the only plausible royal alternative to Henry, who was confined in the Tower of London).

1496 – Henry VII joins the Holy League; commercial treaty between England and Netherlands.

1497 – John Cabot discovers Newfoundland

1502 – Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, marries James IV of Scotland.

1509 – Henry VIII, becomes king.

1513 – Battle of Flodden Field (fought at Flodden Edge, Northumberland) in which invading Scots are defeated by the English under their commander, 70 year old Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; James IV of Scotland is killed.

1515 – Thomas Wolsey, Archbisop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal

1517 – The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his “95 Theses” against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg

1520 – Field of Cloth of Gold: Francois I of France meets Henry VIII but fails to gain his support against Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V

1521 – Henry VIII receives the title “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther

1529 – Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope’s consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the “Reformation Parliament” and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome

1530 – Thomas Wolsey dies

1532 – Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII’s divorce

1533 – Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1534 – Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England

1535 – Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy

1536 – Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539.

1537 – Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI

1539 – Dissolution of Glastonbury Abbey; buildings torched and looted by king’s men; Abbot Richard Whiting is executed by hanging atop Glastonbury Tor.

1540 – Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason

1542 – Catherine Howard is executed

1543 – Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France

1544 – Henry VIII and Charles V invade France

1547 – Edward VI, King of England): Duke of Somerset acts as Protector

1549 – Introduction of uniform Protestant service in England based on Edward VI’s Book of Common Prayer

1550 – Fall of Duke of Somerset:; Duke of Northumberland succeeds as Protector

1551 -Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion

1553 – On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days; Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England

1554 – Execution of Lady Jane Grey

1555 – England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake

1558 – England loses Calais, last English possession in France; Death of Mary I; Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal of Catholic legislation in England

1560 – Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland

1563 – The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church

1564 – Peace of Troyes between England and France

1567 – Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate; James VI, King of Scotland

1568 – Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle

1577 – Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580)

1584 – William of Orange is murdered and England sends aid to the Netherlands; 1586 Expedition of Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies; Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots

1587 – Execution of Mary Queen of Scots; England at war with Spain; Drake destroys Spanish fleet at Cadiz

1588 – The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins: war between Spain and England continues until 1603

1597 – Irish rebellion under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)

1600 – Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company

1601 – Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion, and is executed

1603 – Elizabeth dies; James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

1604 – Hampton Court Conference: no relaxation by the Church towards Puritans; James bans Jesuits; England and Spain make peace

1605 – Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I.

1607 – Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland; colony of Virginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith; Henry Hudson begins voyage to eastern Greenland and Hudson River

1610 – Hudson Bay discovered

1611 – James I’s authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster

1614 – James I dissolves the “Addled Parliament” which has failed to pass any legislation

1618 – Thirty Years’ War begins, lasts until 1648

1620 – Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the “Mayflower”; found New Plymouth

1622 – James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs

1624 – Alliance between James I and France; Parliament votes for war against Spain; Virginia becomes crown colony

1625 – Charles I, King of England (to 1649); Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France; dissolves Parliament which fails to vote him money

1628 – Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament’s statement of civil rights in return for finances

1629 – Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640

1630 – England makes peace with France and Spain

1639 – First Bishops’ War between Charles I and the Scottish Church; ends with Pacification of Dunse

1640 – Charles I summons the “Short ” Parliament ; dissolved for refusal to grant money; Second Bishops’ War; ends with Treaty of Ripon; The Long Parliament begins.

1641 – Triennial Act requires Parliament to be summoned every three years; Star Chamber and High Commission abolished by Parliament; Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred; Grand Remonstrance of Parliament to Charles I

1642 – Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament’s Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians)

1643 – Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament

1644 – Battle of Marston Moor; Oliver Cromwell defeats Prince Rupert

1645 – Formation of Cromwell’s New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces

1646 – Charles I surrenders to the Scots

1647 – Scots surrender Charles I to Parliament; he escapes to the Isle of Wright; makes secret treaty with Scots.

1648 – Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at battle of Preston Pride’s Purge: Presbyterians expelled from Parliament (known as the Rump Parliament); Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years’ War

1649 – Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth, in which ; England is governed as a republic, is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland

1650 – Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.

1651 – Charles II invades England and is defeated at Battle of Worcester; Charles escapes to France; First Navigation Act, England gains virtual monopoly of foreign trade

1653 – Cromwell dissolves the “Rump” and becomes Lord Protector

1654 – Treaty of Westminster between England and Dutch Republic

1655 – England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell; seizes Jamaica from Spain

1656 – War with Spain (until 1659)

1658 – Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes, England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk

1659 – Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; “Rump” Parliament restored

1660 – Convention Parliament restores Charles II to throne

1661 – Clarendon Code; “Cavalier” Parliament of Charles II passes series of repressive laws against Nonconformists; English acquire Bombay

1662 – Act of Uniformity passed in England

1664 – England siezes New Amsterdam from the Dutch, change name to New York

1665 – Great Plague in London

1666 – Great Fire of London

1667 – Dutch fleet defeats the English in Medway river; treaties of Breda among Netherlands, England, France, and Denmark

1668 – Triple Alliance of England, Netherlands, and Sweden against France

1670 – Secret Treaty of Dover between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France to restore Roman Catholicism to England; Hudson’s Bay Company founded

1672 – Third Anglo-Dutch war (until 1674); William III (of Orange) becomes ruler of Netherlands

1673 – Test Act aims to deprive English Roman Catholics and Nonconformists of public office

1674 – Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands

1677 – William III, ruler of the Netherlands, marries Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, heir to the English throne

1678 – ‘Popish Plot’ in England; Titus Oates falsely alleges a Catholic plot to murder Charles II

1679 – Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament’s Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories

1681 – Whigs reintroduce Exclusion Bill; Charles II dissolves Parliament

1685 – James II of England and VII of Scotland (to 1688); rebellion by Charles II’s illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, against James II is put down

1686 – James II disregards Test Act; Roman Catholics appointed to public office

1687 – James II issues Declaration of Liberty of Conscience, extends toleration to all religions

1688 – England’s ‘Glorious Revolution’; William III of Orange is invited to save England from Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France

1689 – Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694), Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and the Netherlands

                                                                                                                

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About the author

Mahbub Murad

Mahbub Murad

I am a Lecturer of English at Mohanagar Ideal College and the admin of this site. If anyone wants to share his/her idea or get any support, he or she can contract me. - Cell: 01761519111
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