1. Drama: Drama is a form of literature which is written in dramatic dialogue form to be performed by some characters on the stage before the audience. A drama can be compared to the mountain. It comes to life when it is taken in the performance of actors who accept the roles of characters and speak the dialogues. Continue reading
Aristotelian concept of plot and how far is it applicable in King Oedipus
Definition of Plot: Generally plot is a small piece of ground which is used for a specific purpose. According to the concept of Aristotle, a plot is the very life and soul of tragedy and it must have a beginning, middle and an end and the events of the plot must casually relate to one another. In his poetics, Aristotle considered plot as the most important element of the drama- more important than character. Continue reading
Discuss about the Conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles from Homer’s The Iliad
It is well known to us that, Homer is considered as one of the greatest Greek literary creators, who is mostly familiar for The Iliad. In this epic Achilles is considered as one of the most important characters, who has made the epic fruitful.
The story of the epic has started with the conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles. Both of them are Greek fighters but they always quarrel and fight with each other. Continue reading
Greek Epic: a. The Iliad b. The Odyssey
Latin Epic: The Aeneid
French Epic: a. The Song of Roland b. Aucassin and Nicolette
Spanish Epics: The Cid
Portuguese Epics: The Lusiad Continue reading
Discuss The Iliad as an epic
Definition of an Epic: An epic is a long narrative poem, on a great and serious subject related in a lofty style and centered on a heroic figure. Its actions depend on the fate of tribe or nation or the human race.
There are two types of epics; one is primary epic and another is secondary epic. Primary epic is oral but not written. It comes from generation to generation. For example- The Iliad by Homer is a primary epic.
Characteristics of an epic: There are many characteristics of an epic. These are mentioned bellow- Continue reading
The Iliad takes place toward the end of the Trojan War, which, according to legend, began when Paris, a son of the king of Troy, abducted Helen, the wife of the Spartan king Menelaus. At the point Homer begins, Achilles, a Greek warrior, and Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greek army besieging Troy, quarrel over a captive woman, Briseis. Achilles withdraws in anger to his tent, while his mother, Thetis, a sea goddess, persuades Zeus to inflict losses on the Greeks and thus prove the value of Achilles to the Greek forces. After a long day of battle, the Greeks are reduced finally to approaching Achilles in an embassy. Though moved, Achilles holds firm.
The fighting continues until Achilles allows his beloved companion Patroclus to enter the war wearing Achilles’ own armor. Hector, the chief Trojan warrior, kills Patroclus and takes the armor, though the Greeks after an intense struggle win back the body. Thetis brings Achilles new armor, including a great, elaborately embossed shield. Achilles reenters the battle, slaughters Trojans relentlessly, kills Hector, and maltreats Hector’s corpse. Achilles then holds funeral games in Patroclus’ honor. The games, at which Achilles commands and Agamemnon remains in the background, also serve to restore him to his honored position in the warrior society. There is a profounder restoration of Achilles to his humanity when he gives back Hector’s body to Hector’s father, the aged king of Troy. The Trojans lament and bury Hector.
Though Homer knew the entire legend of the 10-year siege and refers both to early events and to Troy’s fall, he limits his material to a brief period of 50 days and creates a tightly unified structure; this is one of the chief reasons for the belief that the epic is the work of one man and not a compilation to which each generation added new modifications. The division of the material into 24 books, however, .is probably later. Though Homer is careful about the time scheme, the action follows its own inner time and its own carefully planned rhythms. Periods of 9 days are often covered in 30 lines, whereas long sections of many books deal with one day.
What is an Epic? Discuss John Milton’s Paradise Lost is an epic.
Epic: An epic is a long narrative poem on a great and serious subject related in an elevated style and centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends on the fate of tribe or nation or the human race.
a. Hero: The hero is a figure of great national or even cosmic (universe) importance. The epic hero has super human strength, common character or intellect fighting for national or collective interest. Continue reading
1. Symbol: A word which has another meaning or even several meanings is called symbol. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.
2. Alliteration: Alliteration means the repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.
3. Personification: Personification is the attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
4. Line, verse, and stanza: The single written poetic line is called the Line when two lines are combined they make a Verse and when two or more verses are collected, they form a Stanza. Continue reading