Rules of Modifiers

Modifier:

A modifier is a word or phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb. It provides additional information about another word or phrase. It is also known as an adjunct.

Modifier is of two types; Pre-modifier and Post-modifier

When modifiers appear before the head are called Pre- Modifier, and while modifiers appear after the head are called Post- Modifier.

Modifiers may be either restrictive (essential to the meaning of a sentence) or non-restrictive (additional but not essential elements in a sentence).

The grammatical items which are involved in Modifier are –

1) Determiner

2) Noun Adjective

3) Noun in Appositive

4) Infinitive

5) Infinitive Phrase

6) Relative Pronoun

7) Relative Clause

8) Prepositional Phrase

9) Adverb

10) Participle

Determiner: Determiner includes Article, Possessive, Demonstrative, and Adjective

i) Article: a) Indefinite: a and an b) Definite: the

ii) Possessive: my, your, our, his, her, their, its

(Note: All possessive pronouns come before noun. Example; My pen, our house, their land, its colour etc.)

iii) Demonstrative: this, that, these and those

iv) Adjective: Adjective is classified in various parts. Such as; a) Adjective of quality, b) Adjective of quantity or quantifier, c) Adjective of number d) Distributive adjective and e) pronominal adjective.

a) Adjective of quality: good, bad, honest, dishonest etc. (Note: Adjective of quality does not work as determiner but it works as modifier)

b) Adjective of quantity: some, many, much, little, few, huge, full, half etc.

c) Adjective of number or Numeral Adjective: It is classified in different parts.

i) Ordinal number: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th

ii) Cardinal number: one, two, three etc.

iii) Multiplicative number: once, twice, thrice etc.

iv) Collective number: pair, dozen etc.

v) Ranking number: primary, secondary and tertiary.

2) Noun Adjective (Noun + Noun): When two nouns sit in the same place then the first noun is called noun adjective.

For example; Dhaka City, Bangladesh Bank, School Bus, College Dress, Class room etc.

3) Noun in Appositive (Extra idea about Noun): When extra idea is given about Noun then it is called Noun in Appositive.

For example; i)  Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is a very large city.  ii) Bangladesh, a land of rivers, is our motherland. iii) Jahid, my best friend, is very serious in his study.

4) Infinitive (to + verb):

For example; i) To walk is good for health. ii) To swim is easy. iii) Fishes are good to eat.

5) Infinitive Phrase (to + verb + object):

For example; i) To walk in the morning is good for health. ii) To swim in the pond is easy. iii) Fishes are good to eat for our health.

6) Relative Pronoun: that, who, whose, whom, which, why, where, what, how etc.

For example; i) I know the man who is very honest. ii) This is the place where he was born. iii) I have no idea why he did the work. iv) He told me how to do it.

7) Relative Clause: The clause which begins with relative pronoun is called relative clause.

For example; i) I know the man who is very honest. ii) This is the place where he was born. iii) I have no idea why he did the work. iv) He told me how I can do it.

8) Prepositional Phrase: At the top of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue of, for the sake of, in case of, in comparison to, in course of, in favour of, in order to, in search of, in spite of, instead of, in the midst of, in view of, on account of, on behalf of, owing to, with a view to etc.

9) Adverb: An adverb is a word used to modify any part of speech except noun or pronoun. (J.C. Nesfield)

Classification of Adverb:

i) Adverb of time, ii) Adverb of place, iii) Adverb of manner, iv) Adverb of degree, v) Adverb of reason or purpose, vi) Adverb of affirmation and negation, vii) Intensifiers and viii) Downtoners

i) Adverb of time: কখন, কতক্ষন, বা কতবার কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন হয় তা বোঝাতে Adverb of time ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ Now, then, ago, before, always, seldom, often, once, twice, again, today, yesterday, daily, regularly, early etc.

ii) Adverb of place: কাজটি কোথায় হচ্ছে বা কোথায় থেকে হচ্ছে বোঝাতে Adverb of place বসে। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ here, there, far, near, above, below, inside, outside, locally etc.

iii) Adverb of manner: কীভাবে কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন হয় তা বোঝাতে Adverb of manner ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ clearly, closely, correctly, bravely, badly, sadly, softly, steadily, slowly, simply, suddenly, carefully, carelessly, suddenly, easily, quickly, probably, wrongly, fortunately, unfortunately, naturally, wrongly etc.

iv) Adverb of degree: কোন কাজ কতটা বা কি পরিমান সম্পন্ন হয় তা বোঝাতে Adverb of degree ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ almost, quite, very, much, fully, partially, completely, strongly, totally, entirely, deeply, half, poorly etc.

v) Adverb of reason or purpose: কোন কাজের কারণ বা উদ্দেশ্য বোঝাতে Adverb of reason or purpose ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ hence, therefore, so, so that etc.

vi) Adverb of affirmation and negation: হ্যাঁ – বাচক বা না – বাচক শব্দ Adverb রুপে ব্যবহার হতে পারে। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলো হলোঃ yes, no, never.

vii) Intensifiers: যে Adverb গুলো verb এর কাজের উপর বিশেষ ভাবে জোর দেয়, সেগুলোকে Intensifier বলে। যেমনঃ very, very much, actually, certainly, surely, definitely, really, absolutely, indeed etc.

viii) Downtoners: যে adverb গুলি verb, adjective বা অন্য কোন adverb এর গুরুত্ব কমিয়ে দেয় সেগুলিকে Downtoners বলে। যেমনঃ hardly, barely, scarcely, nearly etc.

10) Participle: A participle is that form of verb which is partially a verb and partially an adjective. (Wren and Martin)

A participle is a double part of speech – a verb and an adjective combined. (Nesfield)

There are two types of participle; one is present participle and other is past participle.

i) Present participle (verb + ing – adjective):

a) We should not get down from a running b) A blooming flower is beautiful to look at. c) A barking dog seldom bites. d) We found the boys playing in the field. e) Hearing the noise the child woke up.

ii) Past participle:

a) We saw the trees laden with fruits. b) There is a broken chair in the room. c) He got a hidden treasure in his field. d) Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.

(Source: Applied English Grammar and Composition by P. C. Das)

 

 

 

Practice Sheet of Modifier

  1. Read the following text and use modifiers in the blanks as directed. In almost every country of the world unemployment is one of the (a) —— (pre-modify another adjective) social and economic problems of the day. It exists not only in the developed countries but also in the (b) —— (use a participle to pre-modify the noun) countries. The word “unemployment” means without any job or work by (c) —— (use relative pronoun to post-modify the noun) one can earn his livelihood. When a man has a job or a work for (d) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) living, he is employed and when he has no job, he is unemployed. Bangladesh is now (e) —— (post-modify the verb) facing this problem. The causes of (f) —— (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) problem are many. (g) —— (pre-modify the noun) mills and factory were not built and we had been ill fed and ill clad. Even after independence, governments failed (h) —— (use infinitive to post-modify the noun) new industries and factories. (i) —— (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) industries have almost decayed. Capital (j) —— (use past participle to post-modify the noun) in cottage industries is always at a risk.

Answer:  a) greatest, biggest, largest b) developing c) which d) his e) greatly, largely f) unemployment g) many h) to build, to set up i) government j) plaiting

  1. Macbeth is one of the (a) —— (Pre-modify the noun) tragedies ever written in the (b) —— (Use noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) literature. After winning in a battle, Macbeth happened to meet three witches (c) —— (Use relative clause to post-modify the noun) that he would become the King someday. Hearing their prophecy, Macbeth became convinced and wrote a letter to his wife (d) —— (Use participle phrase to post-modify the verb). After some days, Duncan, (e) —— (Use appositive to post-modify the noun) arrived at Macbeth’s castle. But now a strong sense of conscience grew in him. He decided not to kill the King. But Lady Macbeth instigated him (f) —— (Use infinitive to post-modify the verb). Macbeth (g) —— (Pre-modify the verb) killed the king when he was sleeping. But, killing the (h) —— (Use participle to pre-modify noun) king, Macbeth killed (i) —— (Use possessive to premodify the noun) own sleep for ever. From (j) —— (Use demonstration to pre-modify the noun) night onward, Macbeth could not sleep even for a single movement.

Answer:  a) greatest b) English, world c) who told him d) narrating their prophecy, highlighting their prophecy e) the king of Scotland, the then king of Scotland f) to kill g) unwillingly, brutally, unkindly h) sleeping i) his j) that  

  1. Most of the people in (a) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) country do not know the importance of English. In fact, it is an (b) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) language and we are living in a (c) —— (pre-modify the noun) village. So, if you know English (d) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb), you can communicate with (e) —— (use article to pre-modify the noun phrase) rest of the world. It is surely an important element of your (f) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) skill. Without the knowledge of English with proper understanding, you cannot complete (g) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) higher studies because most of the books are written in English in the process of higher education. Poor knowledge of English will also hamper your (h) —— (use an adjective) development. In short, if you do not have a good command of English, you will suffer (i) —— (post-modify the verb with prepositional phrase). So, do not waste your time and try to learn English (j) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb) from today.

Answer:  a) our b) international c) global d) fluently, properly, correctly e) the f) communication g) your h) skill, career, communication i) in the long run, in your future, in your life j) properly, correctly, fluently  

  1. A village doctor is a very (a) —— (pre-modify the noun) person in the rural areas of Bangladesh. He is (b) —— (post-modify the verb) known as a quack. A village doctor is not a (c) —— (pre-modify the noun) doctor. He usually sits in a small dispensary (d) —— (postmodify the verb). He treats the patients (e) —— (use a participle phrase to post-modify the verb). A village doctor is not a (f) —— (pre-modify the noun) man. His chamber is (g) —— (pre-modify the verb) furnished. He cannot supply costly medicine to (h) —— (pre-modify the noun) patients. In our country, the number of qualified doctors is (i) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) few. So, a village doctor is a great friend to the (j) —— (pre-modify the noun) villagers.

Answer:  a) familiar, famous, well-known, important b) mostly, greatly, highly c) qualified, certified, skilled d) daily, everyday e) applying his own method, taking a small fee, taking no fee f) rich g) poorly  h) serious, village, poor i) very j) poor

  1. Kazi Nazrul Islam is called the Shelley of Bengali literature. He was a (a) —— (pre-modify the noun) poet. He wrote (b) —— (post-modify the verb) in every branch of Bengali literature. Nazrul, (c) —— (use an appositive), won the attention of everyone in his early childhood. He wrote ceaselessly until the death of (d) —— (use possessive pronoun) poetic flair. He composed his songs (e) —— (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). His songs are (f) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) melodious. He enriched the Bengali literature (g) —— (use an adverb to pre-modify the verb). His literary works have enriched (h) —— (use a noun adjective) literature. He was (i) —— (use an article) secular poet. He sang the songs of equality (j) —— (use an adverbial phrase).

Answer:  a) great, rebel, secular, famous b) many, greatly, largely c) our national poet, a secular poet, our pride d) his e) to guide us, to protest all evils, to rebel against all evils f) very g) greatly, largely, mostly h) Bangla i) a j) in his writing, in his whole life, in his work.  

  1. Corruption is dishonesty (a) —— (use a participle to post-modify the noun) by people in position or power. We find (b) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) dishonesty in almost all sectors of our life, society and in government departments. At present corruption has been so (c) —— (pre-modify the verb) rooted in our national life that it becomes a curse. Businessmen, doctors, lawyers, service holders, teachers, politicians, engineers are (d) —— (post-modify the verb). We increase the problem (e) —— (use a participle to post-modify the verb) bribes. We do not want our papers (f) —— (use an infinitive to post-modify the verb) stuck in the piles of dusty files. Thus corruption is spreading (g) —— (use an adverb to post-modify the verb) like cancer. The corrupt people flourish at the expense of the society and the nation (h) —— (use an adverb to post-modify the verb). This malpractice should be stopped (i) —— (use an adverb post-modify the verb). Corruption is ingrained in human nature (j) —— (use a participle to post-modify the noun) power and pelf in pursuit of happiness.

Answer:  a) applying, making b) this c) acute d) mostly involved, largely involved, greatly involved e) taking, receiving, demanding f) to get g) quickly, epidemically, largely h) largely i) quickly, strictly j) applying, utilizing

  1. Nelson Mandela, (a) —— (post-modify the noun with an appositive), is one of the greatest leaders of the world. During (b) —— (use determiner) time of Mandela, the Europeans were separated from the non-Europeans. It was (c) —— (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) policy of racial segregation. The blacks were subjected to (d) —— (use a quantifier to pre-modify the noun) sorts of indignities. They were denied all basic (e) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) rights. They were in fact aliens in (f) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun phrase) own country. The blacks were also treated (g) —— (use an adverb to post-modify the verb). Even dogs received a much better treatment than the blacks. The (h) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) leader vowed to put an end to the inhuman practice. Unfortunately, (i) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) great man was thrown behind the prison bars. But the oppressive ruler could not break his (j) —— (use a present participle to pre-modify the noun) spirit.

Answer:  a) the first black president of South Africa b) that c) government, ruler d) all, many e) human, f) their g) badly, brutally, unkindly h) great i) this j) rising  

  1. Bangladesh, (a) —— (post-modify the noun with an appositive), is a developing country. (b) —— (pre-modify the noun) parents are engaging their children to work from an (c) —— (use adjective to pre-modify the noun) age. They have to work (d) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) hard to earn their living. (e) —— (use determiner) child labourers in Bangladesh are (f) —— (pre-modify the noun) workers. They are obliged (g) —— (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the noun) in cheap hotels and shops. (h) —— (use adjective as pre-modifier) children work as (i) —— (use noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) hawkers (j) —— (use participle as the post-modifier) different items to the passengers-by.

Answer:  a) an agricultural country, a land of rivers, a riverine country, a land of South Asia b) some, poor, most c) early, immature d) very e) the f) child g) to work in all day long h) some i) street j) selling  

  1. There lived a (a) —— (pre-modify the noun) fox in a jungle. Once the fox was feeling (b) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) hungry. He roamed here and there (c) —— (use prepositional phrase to post-modify the verb), but he could not find anything to eat. He became (d) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) tired. (e) —— (use infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb), he sat under a (f) —— (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) tree. When he looked up, he saw a crow (g) —— (use a participle to post-modify the noun) on one of the branches of the tree. The crow was holding a piece of meat (h) —— (use prepositional phrase to post-modify the verb), (i) —— (use a participle phrase to pre-modify the verb), the mouth of the fox began to water and he wished to have (j) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) piece of meat.

Answer:  a) cunning, clever b) very c) in search of food, in order to get food d) very e) to lose hope f) mango, banyan g) sitting h) in its beak i) seeing it, watching the peace of meat j) that

  1. Beauty is (a) —— (use determiner) creation of art. But it is very difficult (b) —— (infinitive phrase) beauty. We may (c) —— (pre-modify the verb) appreciate it. Beauty may not be identified (d) —— (post-modify the verb) or objectively. It may depend on (e) —— (use possessive) sense of perfection. Another problem is that ugliness has (f) —— (use possessive) beauty too. Now the question arises whether beauty and ugliness are the (g) —— (pre-modify the noun) parts of art. Poet and artists have infused both in (h) —— (use possessive) works. They say that (i) —— (use quantifiers) truths are always objects of beauty. There are two poems on beauty written by two poets of (i) —— (pre-modify the noun) ages.

Answer:  a) the b) to define c) always d) subjectively e) our f) its g) opposite, appreciating h) their i) all j) different   

  1. Once a fox was feeling (a) —— (use an adverb to pre-modify the adjective) hungry. He roamed here and there (b) —— (post-modify the verb with prepositional phrase) food but could not find anything (c) —— (use and infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). To take rest it sat under a tree. When the fox looked up, he saw, to (d) —— (use possessive to premodify the noun) great joy, a crow sitting on one of the branches of the tree. He was holding a piece of meat (e) —— (post-modify the verb with prepositional phrase). On seeing this, his mouth began to water and started thinking about (f) —— (use article to premodify the noun) piece of meat. At last he hit upon a plan to get (g) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) piece of meat from the crow. He got up and said to crow, “How handsome you look! What a nice beak you have! But if you could sing (h) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb), you could win for yourself the title of the ‘Queen of the birds’.” The foolish crow was taken in by the oily talk of the fox. He felt happy. He (i) —— (pre-modify the verb with an adverbial of time) opened his beak (j) —— (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb) and the piece of meat fell down on the ground. The fox picked it up and ate it up at once.

Answer:  a) very b) in search of c) to remove his hunger, to satisfy his hunger d) his e) in his beak f) the g) that h) nicely, sweetly i) then, at once j) to sing a song  

  1. Robi, (a) —— (post-modify the noun with an appositive), is known to his classmates as a good student. He has (b) —— (use a quantifier to pre-modify the noun) good qualities. He knows that the (c) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) duty of student is to study and he never neglects (d) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) duty. He prepares (e) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) lessons regularly. He maintains discipline. He knows the value of time. He gets up (f) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb) so that he can get enough time to study. He goes to school (g) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb). He never wastes a (h) —— (use determiner to pre-modify the noun) moment in vain. Robi is (i) —— (pre-modify the adjective with an intensifier) gentle. He always obeys his parents and teachers. He never mixes with (j) —— (pre-modify the noun) boys. A student like Robi is a great asset of a nation.

Answer:  a) my best friend b) many c) main, fundamental d) this e) his f) early g) regularly, timely, daily h) single i) very j) bad

  1. Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Haq (a) —— (post-modify the noun with an appositive), was very meritorious from his boyhood. His father Kazi Wazed Ali was a (b) —— (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) pleader in the Barisal Bar. (c) —— (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) day the boy Fazlul Haq was reading (d) —— (post-modify the verb with prepositional phrase). His father was passing by. He was reading his lessons and tearing off (e) —— (use article to pre-modify then noun) pages of his book one after another. He (f) —— (use an adverb to pre-modify the verb) entered the room and said, “O my boy, do not play with your book”. “I am not playing. I have already gone through (g) —— (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) pages. So I don’t need them at all,” said he (F.H). (h) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) father wanted to test him. He asked him to quote (i) — — (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) lines from such and such pages of his book. Fazlul Haq quoted the pieces from memory word for word. He was (j) —— (use an adverb to pre-modify the adjective) charmed at the wonderful memory of his son.

Answer:  a) the tiger of Bengal b) famous, great c) one d) in his room e) the f) at once, then  g) these h) his i) some j) very

  1. A balance diet is a good mixture of (a) —— (pre-modify the noun) foods. It is essential for us (b) —— (post-modify the adjective with an infinitive) a healthy life. There are many benefits of eating a (c) —— (pre-modify the noun) diet because it prevents us from (d)—— (use determiner to pre-modify the noun) diseases. As a result, we do not get sick (e) —— (postmodify the verb with an adverb). We should select (f) —— (pre-modify the verb with possessive) diet according to our needs. We should not eat the (g) —— (use adjective to pre-modify the noun) foods for the whole week. We can keep fit (h) —— (use a participle) a balanced diet. But it is not easy (i) —— (post-modify the adjective with an infinitive) a balanced diet. Here (j) —— (use a determiner) nutrionist can help us.

Answer:  a) healthy, nutritive, balanced b) to lead, to enjoy c) balanced d) fatal, many, serious, great e) regularly, easily f) our g) same h) taking, having, eating i) to maintain, to have, to manage j) a  

  1. Tea is the most (a) —— (pre-modify noun) drink in the modern world. It is (b) —— (pre-modify adjective) refreshing. Tea plants grow (c) —— (post-modify verb) on the slope of the hills. In the garden, tea plants are (d) —— (pre-modify verb) planted in rows. (e) —— (pre-modify noun) leaves are plucked for times a year. (f) —— (participle phrase to pre-modify subject), they are processed in a machine and then dried in a cauldron over a furnace. After (g) —— (determiner to pre-modify noun) process, tea is ready for consumption. As a drink, tea is prepared in a (h) —— (pre-modify noun) way. Now, it is a common drink (i) —— (infinitive phrase to post-modify noun). However, taking too much tea is harmful (j) —— (prepositional phrase to post-modify adjective).

Answer:  a) popular, common b) always c) well, plenty d) always e) tender, green f) plucking the leaves, collecting the leaves g) the, this h) healthy, serious i) to refresh our mind, to make us fresh j) for all ages people.  

  1. It is said that the other name of (a) —— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) water is life. By drinking, we quench (b) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) thirst. So we need pure water (c) —— (use infinitive to post-modify the verb) on the earth. But (d) —— (use participle to pre-modify the noun) water is life-killing. By drinking unsafe water, we suffer from (e) —— (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) diseases. We may (f) —— (use pre-modify the verb) face (g) —— (pre-modify the noun) death by taking contaminated water. We are responsible for (h) —— (use demonstrative) pollution. So, (i) —— (pre-modify the noun) awareness is necessary (j) —— (infinitive) water pollution.

Answer:  a) pure, fresh, uncontaminated b) our c) to live d) polluted, contaminated e) many f) even g) sudden, pre-mature h) this i) public j) to stop, to control, to remove

  1. A (a) —— (pre-modify the noun with a noun adjective) morning is misty and cold. There is dense fog (b) —— (post-modify the verb). The sun rises (c) —— (post-modify verb) in the morning. People wear (d) —— (pre-modify the noun) clothes. They get comforts (e) —— (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) in the sun. Those who don’t have clothes suffer from (f) —— (pre-modify the noun) cold. Sometimes, the fog is so dense even things at a distance can (g) —— (pre-modify the verb) be seen. People like (h) —— (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) in doors. The fog disappears when the sun rises up. Dew drops (i) ——, (post-modify the noun with a prepositional phrase) look like pearls. Rural people gather around the fire (j) —— (post-modify the verb with an infinitive phrase).

Answer:  a) winter b) everywhere c) late d) warm e) to bake f) dangerous g) hardly h) to sit i) on the grasses j) to bake themselves  

  1. Ayesha Begum has three sons and two daughters. Her husband was a (a) —— (pre-modify the noun) farmer who used (b) —— (post-modify the verb by using infinitive) on other people’s land. With great effort they married (c) —— (use a pronoun) daughters off by the time they reached teenage. The sons also began (d) —— (use present participle to modify the verb) with their father as (e) —— (pre-modify the noun with a noun adjective) labourers when they were old enough to help. By the time they were seventeen, they left for towns (f) —— (use infinitive to post-modify the verb) money. At first they used to send money to their parents (g) —— (use an adverb to post-modify the verb) but after getting married they barely had enough to support their (h) —— (pre-modify the noun) families. Out of desperation, Ayesha Begum started (i) —— (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) in the village to feed her old, (j) —— (pre-modify the noun) husband and herself.

Answer:  a) poor, landless b) to cultivate, to work c) their d) working e) day f) to earn g) timely, monthly h) own i) to work, to beg j) sick, helpless  

  1. Once there lived a (a) —— (use a pre-modifier of the noun) woodcutter. But he was (b) —— (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) honest. He earned his livelihood by cutting wood and selling them in the market. One day while he was cutting wood near a pond, suddenly (c) —— (use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) axe slipped from his hand and fell into the water and soon it sank (d) —— (use a prepositional phrase). The woodcutter could not find any way to get back his axe. He sat by the side of the pond (e) —— (post-modify the verb with an adverb). He was thinking how he could cut wood without axe and maintain (f) —— (use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) family. Then a (g) —— (pre-modify the noun) incident took place. A (h) —— (use a pre-modifier of the noun) fairy was passing near the pond. She saw the woodcutter (i) —— (use a present participle to post-modify the verb) by the pond. She asked him with a sweet voice. “Why are you (j) —— (use an intensifier to premodify the adjective) sad? What happened to you?”

Answer:  a) poor b) very c) his d) down in the river e) sadly, helplessly, emotionally f) his g) strange h) water i) sitting, crying j) very  

  1. Road accident is a common phenomenon in (a) —— (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) country. It occurs almost every day. Consequently, people have to face (b) —— (premodify the noun) death. I saw a terrible road accident (c) —— (post-modify the verb). A Dhakabound bus (d) —— (pre-modify the verb) collided with a Chittagongbound bus in Comilla. (e) —— (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) died on the spot. (f) —— (use demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) passengers (g) ——(use past participle to postmodify the noun) in the accident were immediately hospitalized. (h) —— (pre-modify the noun) scream was heard from every corner. (i) —— (use determiner to pre-modify the noun) road was covered with blood. The police surrounded the whole area. They were investigating the spot. I could not sleep (j) —— (post-modify the verb) last night.

Answer:  a) our b) premature, untimely, sudden c) yesterday, last week d) greatly e) some, many f) those g) injured, wounded h) a i) the j) properly, peacefully, fully   

 

 

Modifier Practice Sheet of Modifier

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