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Mar 01

Jashim Uddin

Rules of Articles

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 One > an > a : এক = একটি = একজন

This/that > the : টি = টা = খানা = খানি

Where they are used:

a/ an Or the + singular countable noun : a hat, the hat

the Or zero + plural countable : the hats, hats

the Or zero + uncountable : the water, water

Example of singular countable noun

A : The man who lives next door is a doctor.

an : My sister is an architect.

The : The architect who designed this block won a prize.

 

Example of plural countable noun

zero : The people who work next door are architects.

the : The architects who designed this book won the prize.

 

Example of uncountable noun

zero : Sugar is bad for you.

the : The sugar you bought yesterday has got damp.

 

a/ an Or the + singular countable noun : a hat, the hat

 

A + consonant sound An + vowel sound (A, Av, B, D, G)
A one-way street, a one-armed man

A European

A united party, a union

A large apple

A sharp bend

A hotel, a history book, a hill, a humble

An orange, an octopus

An Englishman

An umbrella, an urban area

An apple

An S-bend

An hour, an honourable person, an honest man

(a + norange, a + noctopus, a + napple, a + nhour)

 

Special Usages

  1. The Anaphoric Use of “The”: (to carry back)

a). I have an apple. The apple is sweet.

b). He is a boy. The boy is gentle.

 

  1. The Generic Use of “The”: (generalizing use; to mean – whole class)

a). A bird has wings. (a bird = all birds)

b). The bird has wings. (the bird = all birds)

 

  1. Specific Use of “The”: (limiting use)

a). I have a dog. (a dog = one dog)

b). The dog is black. (the dog = one dog)

 

Other Usages

  1. a/ an + adjective/ adverb + noun

This is a red apple.

He is an honest man.

He is a very honest man.

 

  1. a/ an + more than one noun

a red and blue pencil.  &   a red and a blue pencil.

a poet and thinker.    &    a poet and a thinker.

Advanced Usages

  1. a/ an + noun: (to mean – “any”)

There was a king.

There was an old fox.

 

  1. a/an + noun: (rate, weights, measures, speed)

Wheat sells two rupees a kilo.

He is driving at forty kilometers an hour.

He earns five rupees a day.

His salary is six hundred rupees a month.

 

  1. a/ an + name of persons

A Mr. Bamboo came here. (unknown)

 

  1. a/ an + abstract noun (a kind of quality)

She has received a good education.

She has a working knowledge of grammar.

 

  1. a/ an + verb: (used as a noun)

He has gone for a walk.

May I go for a swim/ a ride?

You should have a rest.

 

  1. a/an + uncountable noun:

(when a countable noun is as an uncountable noun)

 

i).  I have great love for her. (uncountable)

She is an old love of mine. (countable)

ii). He came here on time.

I had a bad time in Bombay.

iii).The room is full of smoke.

Let’s have a smoke.

iv). I will buy a chicken tomorrow.

I am fond of bread and chicken.

v). The sun gives us heat.

I did fairly well in a trail heat.

 

  1. a + few/ little/ lot of/ good deal/ good many/ great many/ dozen/ hundred/ thousand/ million

There are a hundred people in the street.

Here are a dozen of bananas.

A good many people witnessed the football match.

 

  1. What + a/ an + noun (in exclamatory sentences)

What a pity it is!

What a nice bird it was!

 

  1. Quite/ many/ such/ but/ mere/ rather/ not + a/an + singular common noun

He is not such a boy as I expected.

Not a single man was present in the meeting.

 

  1. Some Idioms:

To be in a hurry, to be in a temper, to have a pain/ a headache/ a fever, to have a mind to, to

make a noise, to run a temperature, to catch cold/ a cold, to make a fire

 

Position of Articles

 

  1. Article + Noun (a book, an hour)
  2. Article + Adjective + Noun (a good book, a historical place)
  3. Article + Adverb + Adjective + Noun (a very good pen, a very honest man)
  4. as/ how + Adjective + (a/ an) + Noun (as bad a man as he, how good a book, how nice a place)
  5. so/ too + Adjective + a/ an + Noun (so serious an attempt)

The Or zero + plural countable: the hats, hats

The Or zero + uncountable: the water, water

  1. Names of ranges of mountains:– The Himalayas, The Alps.
  2. Names of groups of Islands:– The East Indies, The Andamans, The West Indies.
  3. Names of rivers:- The Gang, The Magna.
  4. Names of great books:- The Quran, The Bible, The Ramayan.
  5. Names of newspaper:- The Time, The Daily Star.
  6. Names of planets:- The earth, The world, The Star.
  7. The dates of a month:- The 2nd February, The 6th December.
  8. Ordinal Number written in letter:- The First, The second.
  9. Superlative Degree:- The best, The oldest.
  10. Adjective used as Noun:- The poor, The rich, The brave.
  11. Before – office/ cinema/ theatre/ picture/ circus/ station/ bus-stop.
  12. Common Noun used as Abstract Noun:- The mother in her in dead, The student in me is still alive.
  13. Common Noun used as apposition to Proper Noun:- Patna, the capital of Bihar; Gandi, the fighter for freedom
  14. Names of Musical Instruments:- The tabla, The violin, the sitar, the harmonium.
  15. Names of the historical places/ buildings:- The Taj Mahal, The Red Fort.
  16. Proper Noun qualified by Adjective:- The late M. Gandhi, The immortal Tulsi.
  17. Nouns showing weights/ measures/ rate:- Silk is sold by the meter, Wheat is sold by the kilo.
  18. In some Idioms – be in/ on the air, be in the right/ wrong, keep to the right/ left, speak to the point.
  19. Before Noun + Adjective Clause:- The gold he bought is not pure.
  20. Before definite objects/ places:- on the wall, on the earth, in the field, in the morning, in the evening.

 

Other expression

  1. The + same … …

We live in the same street. (not in same street)

Are these two books different? They’re the same. (not they’re same.)

  1. “The” is used before these words: – the + top, middle, bottom/ end, left, right.
  2. The radio/ the Internet; not the television/TV; but, you turn off the television.
  3. All/ both/ half + the + noun.
  4. At + the.
  5. One of + the … ….
  6. Before “season and “the name of seasons”; not month.
  7. The + majority, minority, people, public.
  8. Varieties: – Continents : Africa, South America

Countries        : France, Japan

{Not used “The”}    Islands              : Sicily, Tasmania

Cities, towns   : Cairo, New York

Mountains       : Everest, Etna

                                   But, Countries:

i). Republic, Union, Kingdom, States: the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom.

ii). Contracted Form: the USA, the UK.

iii). Plural Form: the Netherlands, the Philippines.

iv). At this format: the north of Brazil, (not, the north Brazil)

  1. The + noun + of + noun: The ring of gold. The water of the pond.

 

Determiners:

  1. Article: a, an, the
  2. Demonstrative Pronoun: that, this, these, those
  3. Possessive Adjective: my, our, your, his, her, their, its, Jarin’s
  4. Numerals: two, three, four …; first, second, third …
  5. Quainter: all, both, some, any, no, every, each, either, neither, few, little, many, much, more, most, enough

 

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About the author

Jashim Uddin

Jashim Uddin