1. Drama: Drama is a form of literature which is written in dramatic dialogue form to be performed by some characters on the stage before the audience. A drama can be compared to the mountain. It comes to life when it is taken in the performance of actors who accept the roles of characters and speak the dialogues.
2. Scene: A scene is an event of a drama. It is also a subdivision of an act in a drama that usually does not involve a change of locale or a shift in time.
3. Comedy: Comedy is a play which ends happily. In general, any literary work that ends to amuse by dealing with humorous, familiar situation involving ordinary people speaking everyday language. There are different kinds of comedy; such as- comedy of humors, comedy of intrigue and comedy of manners. George Barnard Show’s Arms and The Man is a great comedy.
4. Tragedy: Tragedy is a play which ends in disaster to the life of protagonist and the disasters are mostly death. A serious work of fiction, especially a drama that presents the downfall of its protagonist, a person who is better than us, who has some error in judgment, weakness of character, or twist of fate suffers crushing defeat or death. According to the Aristotle, “Tragedy is the artistic imitation of an action that is serious, complete in itself, and of a certain magnitude, and that involves incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish the catharses of such emotion.”
5. Tragic hero: Tragic hero is the main character of tragedy. According to Aristotle, a tragic hero must have two main qualities: First, he must be noble, human qualities, above the norm in intelligence, bravery, charisma, or success; secondly, however, he must also possess a tragic flaw (such as hubris) which causes his ultimate downfall.
6. Protagonist: Protagonist is the main character in a story, novel or play about whom the whole story revolves. For example; In Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations Pip is the protagonist.
7. Tragic Flow: The error, misstep, frailty, or flaw that causes the downfall of the hero at tragedy. For example, in Hamlet the tragic flow of protagonist Hamlet is delaying and delaying. Though Hamlet has gotten many chances to take the revenge of her father’s killer but he does not kill the killer. As a result, at last he takes his tragic death.
8. Revenge Tragedy: Revenge tragedy is a tragedy in which the action of the play begins with a revenge motive. It has some other characteristics- a play with in the play, revenge motif and all the major characters die in the revenge tragedy.
9. Poetry: Poetry is a spontaneous and powerful overflow of human feelings.
10. Catastrophe: The final action that brings a play, particularly a tragedy to its conclusion. Any final action can be catastrophe. Catastrophe should be tragic. In Hamlet, the death of the protagonist Hamlet is the catastrophe.
1. Catharsis: Catharsis is the emotional arouse which makes pity and fear to the audiences after watching the end of tragedy.
2. Dramatic Monologue: A speech delivered when a character is either alone or isolated on the stage. In dramatic monologue or soliloquy, the character freely gives vent to his feelings. The audience overhears the character talking himself or herself. The Monologues could be private as well as public.
3. Character: A person in a literary work. Any person in a play is considered as a character.
4. Characterization: Characterization is the method by which an author creates the appearance and personality of imagery persons and reveals their characters.
5. Chorus: A group of person who give much information to decorate and enlarge the act but they are not the character of the act. They make bridge among the past, present and future condition of the act and inform the audience.
6. One act play: A play in one act, presenting a simple incident involving two or three characters and running for fifty to forty minutes. For example; John Millington Sing’s Riders to the sea is a one act play.
7. Plot: Plot is the careful arrangement of incidents by an author in a narrative to achieve a desired effect. Plot is more than simply series of happiness in a literary work.
9. Soliloquy: A curious but charming dramatic convention in a play, alone on the stage speaks his or her thoughts aloud as if he is thinking about motives, feelings and decisions. In Othello, Iago has soliloquized his motives and so has Smirnov in the Bear.
10. Irony: Irony is a contradictory outcome. It means telling a thing but meaning the opposite thing. There are many types of Irony. In dramatic irony, the audiences of the play know more than the characters and can therefore foresee the tragic or comic circumstances which will befall In verbal irony, we say one thing but mean another: the meaning is far from the usual meaning, calling a humble baker a rich man. It implies a contrast or discrepancy between what is said and meant.
1. Allegory: Allegory means a story with in another story. It is a detailed description of one thing under the image of another. A device; a picture or a piece of writing in which meaning is symbolically represented. The simplest form of Allegory consists of a story or situation written in such a way as to have two coherent meanings. The Old Man and the Sea is an allegorical novel.
2. Simile: An unequivocal comparison between two different things by using ‘like’ ‘as’ ‘so’ ‘such’ ‘such as’ etc. For example; the girl is as beautiful as the rose. Here two different things ‘girl’ and ‘rose’ are compared by the help of as.
3. Metaphor: An unequivocal comparison between two different things without using ‘like’ ‘as’ ‘so’ ‘such’ ‘such as’ etc. For example; Life’s nothing but a walking shadow; a poor player. You are a lion of the jungle.
4. Pun: When a word will give two meanings or words is called pun. For example; I know she lies with many people. Here the word ‘Lie’ bears two meanings; one is she sleeps with many people and another is she speaks false with many people.
5. Metonymy: It is a figure of speech where one thing is replaced by another. The relationship between two things will be loosely connected. For example: I have read many Nazrul. Here Nazrul is replaced by the works of Nazrul.
6. Synecdoche: It is a figure of speech where one thing is placed by another but the relationship will be intimately. For example: I saw a sail. Here sail is placed by the replacement of boat physically.
7. Allusion: Allusion is a reference which refers to a well-known person, place, event (of history, legend or mythology) saying, literary work or passage. For example: Now we clap our hands and say ‘Eureka’.
8. Hypallage or transferred epithet: When the association between the objects is only mental but not physical is called transferred epithet. For example: He lay all night on a sleepless pillow.
9. Conceit: Conceit is an elaborate figure of speech comparing two very dissimilar things or situations. The comparison may be startling, farfetched, fanciful or highly intellectual and may develop an analogy to its logical limits and beyond. John Donne has used many conceits in his poem, ‘The Good Morrow’. For example: ‘Or snorted we in the seven sleepers den?’
10. Satire: Literature which examines or exhibits vice and folly and makes them appear silly or contemptible. Satire differs from Comic in having a purpose. It is directly against a person and thing.
1. Symbol: A word which has another meaning or even several meanings is called symbol. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.
2. Alliteration: Alliteration means the repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.
3. Personification: Personification is the attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
4. Line, verse, and stanza: The single written poetic line is called the Line when two lines are combined they make a Verse and when two or more verses are collected, they form a Stanza.
5. Image and Imagery: A figurative or descriptive language that appeals to the five senses or the use of words and sentences to create an object or scene in the mind of the reader or listener is called an image. Imagery is the whole painted atmosphere created by the use of images.
6. Syllables: The unit of sound is called a syllable such as help has one syllable; but help-ing has two.
7. Wit: Wit is the ability to make brilliant, imaginative or clever connections between ideas and deftness. The original meaning of wit is knowledge, and then intellect.
8. Sonnet: Sonnet is a short lyric poem with 14 iambic pentameter lines. There are two types of sonnets; one is Petrarchan and another is Shakespearean.
9. Epic: Epic is a long narrative poem, on a great and serious subject related in an elevated style and centered on a heroic or quasidivine figure on whose actions defend on the fate of tribe or nation or the human race.
10. Hero: Hero is a figure of great national or even cosmic importance. The epic hero has super human strength, common character or intellect fighting for nation or collective interest.
11. Evocation: Getting inspiration or guidance or courage from the goddess of Muse before doing any hard task especially in the beginning of an epic.
12. Metaphysical Poetry: Metaphysical means beyond physical or something abstract. A metaphysical poem is a poem that consists of abrupt beginning, abstract theme, and use of conceits, bending of passion and arguments and colloquialism. The major theme of this poetry is love, death and religious faith which are all conceptual truths.