Lexical relations or semantic relations among words
a. Synonymy: It refers the similar words of words.
For example: buy – purchase, bargain
According to the use of a sentence they come differently.
b. Antonymy: It indicates the opposite meaning of a word.
For example: good – bad,
Buy – sell
c. Polysemy: It denotes different meaning of a word.
For example: Pupil means student; similarly pupil means the small round black area of the eye.
d. Homophone: It directs a word that is pronounced like another word but has a different spelling or meaning.
For example: some (certain) – sum (amount), feat (achievement) – feet (bottoms)
e. Hyponymy: It leads a word with a particular meaning that is included in the meaning of a more general word.
For example: Dog and cat are hyponyms of animal.
f. Homonymy: It shows a word that is spelt like another word and may be pronounced like it but which has a different meaning.
For example: The meaning of ‘Can’ is ‘be able’ similarly the meaning of ‘Can’ is ‘put something in a container.’
g. Metonymy: It means the act of referring to something else that is closely connected with it.
For example: Per head, Bottle.
h. Homography: It indicates a word that is spelt like another word but has a different meaning from it, and may have a different pronunciation.
For example: Lead /i:/ – to go with a person or an animal to show the way or to make them go in the right direction. Again ‘Lead’ /e/ – to connect one object to another.
i. Metonymy: It directs a word which is interconnected with another word.
For example: wheel – car. Here wheel is interconnected with one another. Again, knee – leg. It is also interconnected with one another.
j. Homomorphy: It refers the different parts of speech of a word and it also how a word is used in different parts of speech in the sentence.
For example: Red (n) – Red is the name of a color.
Red (adj) – I have bought a red shirt.