Langue and Parole: Langue and Parole are two French terms that mean- “Language System” and “Language behavior”. According to Lyons (1968) – “A Langue system is a social phenomenon or institution, which of itself is purely abstract in that it has no physical existence but which is actualized on particular occasions in the language behavior of individual members of the language community.”
Jonathan Culler says, – “Langue is a system, an institution, a set of interpersonal rules and norms; Parole compromises the actual manifestation of the system in speech and writing.”
Langue is a system or organization of a language. It is the roles of a language. It may be grammatical, semantic, phonological, and punctual which are known to the people of all communities who use it. The purpose of langue is to communicate with others. On the other hand,
Feature of Langue:
a. Langue is a corporate, social phenomenon.
b. Language is homogeneous.
c. It is concrete and we can study it.
d. It is a system of linguistic signs which are not abstract but real entities, tangible, totally reduced to conventional, written symbols.
e. Putting it loosely language is – grammar + vocabulary + pronunciation system of community
Parole: The actual speech act which is produced by our vocal organ can be called parole.
According to Saussure, “The actual use of language by people in speech or writing is called Parole.”
Features of Parole:
a. Parole is the set of all utterances that have actually been produced.
b. Parole is a personal, dynamic, social activity which exists at a particular time and place and in a particular situation.
c. Parole is unique because it reflects the changeable relationship between the languages, the precise, contextual elements triggering particular utterances and personal factors.
d. Parole is not collective but individual, moment and heterogeneous.
e. Parole or particular speech act is characterized by personality, nature and several other external forces governing both the production and reception of a speech act.
Distinction between Langue and Parole:
a. Langue is a language system shared by a community of speakers where parole is the individual relation of that system.
b. Langue is a social phenomenon where parole is an individual phenomenon.
c. Langue is what is potential but parole is what is actual.
d. Langue is a static situation where parole is a dynamic situation.
e. Langue is a concept where parole is the sound image of that concept.
f. Langue is an ideal situation where parole is a real situation, it indicates language in action.
g. Langue is rule but parole is behavior.
h. Langue is functional where parole may not be functional.
i. Langue is passive but parole is active.
j. Langue is fixed but parole is free.
k. Langue is a collective instruction but parole is not a collective instruction.