Elizabethan Age (1550-1620):
The age of Elizabethan is highly considered as the golden age of English Literature. A lot of famous and renowned poets, dramatists and essay writers had been created in this era. So, it is called “a nest of singing birds.”
Characteristics of this Era:
a. Religious tolerance is thought as the main characteristic of this era.
b. It is an age of comparative social contentment. The rapid increase of town gave employment to the unemployed people.
c. It is the age of dreams, adventures and unbounded enthusiasm.
d. Elizabethan is the time of intelligence, comport among all classes people, peace at home and abroad and unbounded patriotism.
Non-Dramatic Poets of this Era:
Name: Edmund Spenser (1552-1599)
Type: Non-Dramatic poet
Personal Life: He had spent his life not so easily and pompously because of his poverty. In his childhood he worked hard beside his education and became educated. At last he achieved success and became a great man. Gradually, he got a lot of honor.
a. The Faery Queen,
b. Shepherd’s Calendar,
c. Colins Claut Came Home Again
f. Astrophel etc.
In his personal life from the beginning to the end his life was very eventful. He got only sorrows and sufferings all the time in his life.
Thomas Sackville (1536-1608):
Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton have written Gorboduc (Ferrex and Porrex), the first tragedy of English Literature.
Philip Sidney (1554-1586):
Philip Sidney is the gentleman who will be remembered for his three works. These are: a. The Arcadia, b. Defense of Poesy and c. The school of Abuse.
George Chapman (1559-1634): He had worked hard for a long time on the stage. He had translated “The Iliad” and “Odyssey”. He has also translated Christopher Marlowe’s “Hero and Leander.”
The University Wits: The University Wits refer to those play writers who were brightly or highly educated from Oxford and Cambridge University. Generally, John Lily, Thomas Kyd, Thomas Lodge, George Peal, Robert Green, Christopher Marlowe and Nash are highly considered as University Wits. Among them five authors were born at the same year in 1558. They are- John Lily, Thomas Kyd, Thomas Lodge, George Peal and Robert Green.
In dramatic world, they were very powerful and their authority on drama was very great; but a storm destroyed everything. Among The University Wits Christopher, Marlowe is the only great and perfect dramatist and writer. The contribution of Marlowe is very excessive.
Christopher Marlowe: Christopher Marlowe was born in 1564 in Canterbury. He was the son of a poor shoemaker who had no ability to send his son in the educational institutions to educate him. A rich man came to help Marlowe. So he gained the opportunity to gain institutional knowledge and also gain much knowledge about English Literature. Gradually he became a great dramatist. But unfortunately he was killed by his friends who killed him by stabbing in 1593. At that time he along with his friends was in a bar and drank alcohol.
Works: He has written four great dramas. The dramas are:
a. Tamburlaine the Great
b. Edward II
c. Jew of Malta and
d. Doctor Faustus
Among them Doctor Faustus is his great creation. For it he will always be remembered. He is the creator of Blank Verse and Mighty Line.
William Shakespeare: William Shakespeare is the greatest figure in all the sectors of English Literature who was born at Stratford in Avon. This is why he is called “Bard of Avon.”
His Creations: He has created thirty seven plays, one hundred and fifty four sonnets, three narrative poems, sixteen comedies, seven tragedies and fourteen historical plays.
His famous comedies are as followed:
a. Love’s Labor’s lost
b. The Tempest
c. All’s Well That Ends Well
d. As you Like it
e. The Merchant of Venice
f. Comedy of Errors
g. Much Ado about Nothing
h. Twelfth Night
i. Merry Wives of Windsor
j. Two Gentlemen of Verona
k. A Mid-Summer Night’s Dream etc.
a. Titus Andronicus
e. Romeo and Juliet
f. King Lear
g. Troilus and Cressida