Voice change


Active voice to passive voice:

Rules : [i] The subject of Active voice will be changed to the object in the passive voice.
[ii] The auxiliary verb of Active voice will be unchanged in passive voice. If subject of Active voice is 3rd person singular number , the auxiliary verb will be singular in passive voice.

[iii] The past participle form of the main verb of Active voice will be placed in passive voice.

*Present indenfinite tense – Active voice (without auxiliary verb)-Passive voice (am/is/are)

Examples: a. I eat rice= Rice is eaten by me.
b. They play cricket.= Cricket is played by them.
c. She writes a letter.= A letter is written by her.

* Past indefinite tense: Active voice without auxiliary verb- Passive voice (was/were).
Examples: a. I did the work. = The work was done by me.
b. He ate rice. = Rice was eaten by him.
c. They played cricket. = Cricket was played by them.
d. He wrote a letter.= A letter was written by him.

* Future indefinite tense : Active voice (shall/will) – Passive voice (shall be/will be).
Examples: a.I will eat rice.= Rice will be eaten by me.
b.We will play cricket.= Cricket will be played by us.
c. He will write a letter.= A letter will be written by him.
d.The girl will sing a song.= A song will be sung by the girl.

*Present perfect tense : Active voice (have/has)- Passive voice (has been/have been).
Examples:a. I have eaten rice.= Rice has been eaten by me.
b.we have played cricket.=Cricket has been played by us.
c.He has written a letter.= A letter has been written by him.
d.I have done the sum.= The sum has been done by me.

*Past perfect tense:
Active voice (had) – Passive voice (had been).

Examples:a. The teacher had taught us.= We had been taught by the teacher.
b.I had eaten rice.= Rice had been eaten by me.
c. They had played cricket.= Cricket had been played by them.
*Future perfect tense :
Active voice (shall have /will have) – Passive voice [will have been/ shall have been]
Examples:a.we will have eaten rice.=Rice will have been eaten by us.
b.I will have played cricket.=Cricket will have been played by me.
c.He will have written a letter.= A letter will have been written by him.
*Present continuous: Active (am/is/are)- Passive(am being/is being/are being).

Examples:a.He is eating rice .= Rice is being eaten by him.
b.They are playing cricket.= Cricket is being played by them.
*Past continuous: Active (was/ were)- passive (was bein/were being).

Examples:a.I was eating rice =Rice was being eaten by me.
b.They were playing cricket.=Cricket was being played by them.
c.He was writing a letter.= A letter was being written by him.
Future continuous: Active (shall be/ will be )- Passive (shall be being/will be being).

Examples:a. I will be eating rice .= Rice will be being eaten by me.
b.He will be writing a letter.= A letter will be being written by him.
c.They will be playing cricket.= Cricket will be being played by them.
Present perfect continuous: Active (have been/has been) – Passive (have been being / has been being)

Examples: a.I have been eating rice.= Rice has been eating ay me.
b.He has been writing a letter.= A letter has been being written by him.
c.They have been playing cricket.= Cricket has been being played by them.
Past perfect continuous : Active (had been) – Passive (had been being)

Examples:a. I had been eating rice.= Rice had been being eaten by me.
b.He had been writing a letter.= A letter had been being played by him.
c. They had been playing ludu.= Ludu had been being played by them.
Future perfect continuous : Active (shall have been/will have been) – Passive (shall have been being / will have been being).
Examples: a. They will have been playing cricket.= Cricket will have been being played by them.
b.He will have been writing a letter.= A letter will have been being written by him.

Some important voice changing:

1.Monika opened the door.=The door was opened by Monika.

2.The girls are playing cricket.= Cricket is being played by the girls.

3.Mr. Mazhar teaches us English.=We are taught English by Mr. Mazhar.or,English is taught us by Mr. Mazhar.

Monika’s mother did for me the unnecessary things.= The unnecessary things were done for me by Monika’s mother.

5.I am eating rice= Rice is being eaten by me.
6.I saw him.= He was seen by me.
7.I drink tea. = Tea is drunk by me.
8. We are digging a canal.= A canal is being dug by us.
9.They are eating Bananas= Bananas are being eaten by them.
10. He killed a bird.= A bird was killed by him.
11. I read the novels = The novels were/are read by me.
12.Monika was reading a book.= A book was being read by Monika.
13. They were flying kites.= Kites were being flown by them.
14. We had dug the canal.= The canal had been dug by us.
15. I will be taking tea .= Tea will be being taken by me.
16. We will have finished the work.= The work will have been finished by us.

Conflict Between Agamemnon and Achilles

Discuss about the Conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles from Homer’s The Iliad

  It is well known to us that, Homer is considered as one of the greatest Greek literary creators, who is mostly familiar for The Iliad. In this epic Achilles is considered as one of the most important characters, who has made the epic fruitful.  

  The story of the epic has started with the conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles. Both of them are Greek fighters but they always quarrel and fight with each other. Continue reading

The Iliad as an Epic

                               Discuss The Iliad as an epic

    Definition of an Epic: An epic is a long narrative poem, on a great and serious subject related in a lofty style and centered on a heroic figure. Its actions depend on the fate of tribe or nation or the human race.

   There are two types of epics; one is primary epic and another is secondary epic. Primary epic is oral but not written. It comes from generation to generation. For example- The Iliad by Homer is a primary epic.

  Characteristics of an epic: There are many characteristics of an epic. These are mentioned bellow- Continue reading

Iliad as an Epic

The Iliad takes place toward the end of the Trojan War, which, according to legend, began when Paris, a son of the king of Troy, abducted Helen, the wife of the Spartan king Menelaus. At the point Homer begins, Achilles, a Greek warrior, and Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greek army besieging Troy, quarrel over a captive woman, Briseis. Achilles withdraws in anger to his tent, while his mother, Thetis, a sea goddess, persuades Zeus to inflict losses on the Greeks and thus prove the value of Achilles to the Greek forces. After a long day of battle, the Greeks are reduced finally to approaching Achilles in an embassy. Though moved, Achilles holds firm.

The fighting continues until Achilles allows his beloved companion Patroclus to enter the war wearing Achilles’ own armor. Hector, the chief Trojan warrior, kills Patroclus and takes the armor, though the Greeks after an intense struggle win back the body. Thetis brings Achilles new armor, including a great, elaborately embossed shield. Achilles reenters the battle, slaughters Trojans relentlessly, kills Hector, and maltreats Hector’s corpse. Achilles then holds funeral games in Patroclus’ honor. The games, at which Achilles commands and Agamemnon remains in the background, also serve to restore him to his honored position in the warrior society. There is a profounder restoration of Achilles to his humanity when he gives back Hector’s body to Hector’s father, the aged king of Troy. The Trojans lament and bury Hector.

Though Homer knew the entire legend of the 10-year siege and refers both to early events and to Troy’s fall, he limits his material to a brief period of 50 days and creates a tightly unified structure; this is one of the chief reasons for the belief that the epic is the work of one man and not a compilation to which each generation added new modifications. The division of the material into 24 books, however, .is probably later. Though Homer is careful about the time scheme, the action follows its own inner time and its own carefully planned rhythms. Periods of 9 days are often covered in 30 lines, whereas long sections of many books deal with one day.