Oct 20

Rules of Passage Narration

Rules of Passage Narration

1. প্রথমত, পুরো Passage টি পড়ে কে Speaker এবং কেAudience তা চিহ্নিত করতে হবে। তারপর তাদের উক্তিগুলোর Mood বা ক্রিয়ার ধরন চিহ্নিত করতে হবে।

2. Direct Speech এর ক্ষেত্রে Reporting Verb টি বাক্যের মাঝে বাশেষে থাকলে  Indirect করার ক্ষেত্রে অবশ্যই Direct Speech  কে Sentence এর শুরুতে আনতে হবে।

Dir: “You look a little bit like my mother,” Hassan said to the lady, “Especially in the dark by the fire.”

Indir: Hassan told the lady that she looked a little bit like his mother especially in the dark by the fire.

3. বক্তা যদি পুরো Passage এ একাধিক উক্তি ব্যবহার করে থাকেনতাহলে প্রথম উক্তির পরে পরবর্তী উক্তি গুলোর ক্ষেত্রে হবে-

a. Assertive Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে: added/further added/also said ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

b.  Interrogative Sentenceএর ক্ষেত্রে: again asked/further asked/also asked ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

c. Imperative Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে: and Requested /and ordered to ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

d. Optative Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে:  and prayed/and wished that ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

e. Exclamatory Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে:  and exclaimed in joy that/ in grief that ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

4. Direct Speech এ Reported Speech এ যদি Yes উল্লেখ থাকেতাহলে Indirect Speech করার সময় যথাক্রমে Replied in the Affirmative that/ answered in the positive that ব্যবহার করতেহবে এবং No এর ক্ষেত্রে Replied in the negative that ব্যবহারকরতে হয়।

Dir: Sumon said to Razu, “Are you going to your native village tomorrow?”  No, I have changed my decision,” said Razu.

Indir: Sumon asked Razu if he was going to his native village the next day. Razu replied in negative that he had changed his decision.

5.  Direct Speech এ sir থাকলে indirect Speech এ Sir এরপরিবর্তে Respectfully বা Addressing as sir ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Dir: “Yes, sir” he replied, “I have completed my homework.”

Indir: He replied respectfully in the affirmative that he had completed his homework.    Or

Addressing as sir he replied in the affirmative that he had completed his homework.

6. Direct Speech এ যদি কাউকে Address বা সম্বোধন করা হয়তাহলে Addressing as দিয়ে Indirect Speech শুরু করতে হয়।

Dir: “Are you tired, friends?” said the clever boy.

Indir: Addressing them as friends he (the boy) asked them if they were tired.

7. Direct Speech এ যদি by Allah, by God, by goddess, by my life ইত্যাদি উল্লেখ থাকলে Indirect Speech এ swearing by Allah, by God, by goddess, by my life ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Dir: “By Allah, he replied, I will not help you.”

Indir: Swearing by Allah, he replied that he would not help me.

8. Inverted Comma (“”) এর বাহিরে কোন Clause অথবা Phraseথাকলে তা কোন পরিবর্তন না হয়েই Sentence এর শুরুতে বসবে।এক্ষেত্রে যদি Present Participle অংশ থাকে তাহলে তা শুরুতেবসবে।

Dir: “Are you students?” Asked the principal of this college, turning to the dervishes.

Indir: Turning to the dervishes, the principal of this college asked if they were students.

9. Direct Speech এ যদি Affirmative Sentence হওয়া স্বত্ত্বে ওকোন Sentence এর শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন (?) থাকে তাহলে বুঝতেহবে উক্ত চিহ্ন দ্বারা অবাক বা বিস্ময় প্রকাশ করা হয়েছে তাইIndirect Speech এর ক্ষেত্রে Reporting verb এর পূর্বে Being Surprisedলিখতে হবে এবং Reporting verb টিকে ask/asked দ্বারাপরিবর্তন করতে হবে।

Dir: My father said to me, “You have remembered how he looked all these years?”

Indir: Being surprised he (my father) asked me if I had remembered how he had looked all those years.

10. Direct Speech এ যদি Subject উল্লেখ না থাকে তাহলে Indirect Speech এ বক্তার ক্ষেত্রে the speaker এবং শ্রোতার ক্ষেত্রে the listener ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Dir: “Did you help the boy?” Yes, I helped him last night.

Indir: The speaker asked the person if he had helped the boy. The listener replied in affirmative and said that he had helped him the previous night.


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